Category Archives: Moringa Uses

The Healing Powers of Moringa

Jun 01, 16
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congo moringaIn a remote valley of Congo, on a farm with splendid views of lush green mountains, I stand amidst a plantation of young moringa trees. The green leaves glisten in the African sun, the seed pods hang in curls. I pull a tender young leaf and chew on it, enjoying the fresh, pleasing taste. The Belgian couple growing this crop plans to cash in on an up-and-coming trend and their timing appears to be just right.

Over the past few years, a botanical new to the U.S. and European markets has been making impressive gains in popularity, due to its broad traditional benefits and emerging supportive science. That plant, moringa oleifera, is native to northern India, Pakistan, the Himalayan region, Africa and Arabia, but is now cultivated more widely throughout the tropics. The young plantation I have visited in Congo is one such cultivation project.

Also known as drumstick tree or horseradish tree, moringa trees grow quickly, reaching a height of between 15 and 30 feet within just a few years. The leaves, fruit flowers and immature pods of the tree are eaten as nutritious foods. The leaves in particular are consumed either raw in salads, tossed into blender drinks, or steamed like spinach. Rich in protein, beta-carotene, vitamin C, potassium and calcium, the leaves make an excellent green vegetable, and are pleasing in flavor.

But beyond the flavor and nutrition, moringa offers healing benefits. Virtually all parts of the plant are used to treat inflammation, infectious disorders, and various problems of the cardiovascular and digestive organs, while improving liver function and enhancing milk flow in nursing mothers. The uses of moringa are well documented in both the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of traditional medicine, among the most ancient healing systems in the world.

Moringa is rich in a variety of health-enhancing compounds, including moringine, moringinine, the potent antioxidants quercetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and various polyphenols. The leaves seem to be getting the most market attention, notably for their use in reducing high blood pressure, eliminating water weight, and lowering cholesterol.

Studies show that moringa leaves possess anti-tumor and anti-cancer activities, due in part to a compound called niaziminin. Preliminary experimentation also shows activity against the Epstein-Barr virus. Compounds in the leaf appear to help regulate thyroid function, especially in cases of over-active thyroid. Further research points to anti-viral activity in cases of Herpes simplex 1.

Now that moringa is emerging as a popular supplement for health enhancement, the science on this plant is accelerating. The glucose-modifying, anti-diabetic effects of moringa may prove of great use amidst a virtual epidemic of Type 2 diabetes and obesity. The liver-protective activities of the leaf and its extracts could make it a staple component of bitters formulas and various cleansing preparations. And ongoing work on the anti-cancer properties of moringa may at some point earn this plant a role in chemotherapy.

In the traditional medicinal systems of many cultures, plants with long uses and benefits remain to be discovered. Moringa oleifera, unknown in the market just ten years ago, is surging into greater popularity due to its multiple health benefits and nutritious value as a food. Also known colloquially as “miracle tree,” moringa is a valuable plant medicine, and deserves a place in the home pharmacy.

Article by Chris Kilham on March 29, 2016

Related News Article:  Moringa Leaves Saving Lives in DRC

trees for life.org - Moringa Tree Combats Malnutrition Worldwide

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Moringa Tree Combats Malnutrition Worldwide

Jun 01, 16
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 Moringa-1a

Moringa Trees can be found in the tropics, world wide. It also thrives in the arid parts of the world where bad water, poor diet, and the diseases are leading killers. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine (the use of plants) for their primary healthcare. Since the Moringa Tree is already common in much of the developing world, it can meet the needs of local populations in terms of availability, accessibility, and utilization. It is already growing in areas of need, with spontaneous growth in many regions, and is a hearty and drought tolerant plant. Unlike imported medicine, foods, or other supplements, the low cost of the Moringa Tree makes it affordable to poor populations. Its potential as a cheap local supplement in the fight against malnutrition is promising. Many humanitarian organizations including the Church World Service, the Educational Concerns for Hunger Organizations, Trees for Life, and the National Science Foundation now promote the use of Moringa in poverty-stricken areas to combat malnutrition.

Amadou Ba, director of a Senegalese village health post states, “We were all trained in the classic solutions for treating malnutrition– whole milk powder, sugar, vegetable oil, sometimes peanut butter. But these ingredients are expensive and the recovery of malnourished infants can take months. Now we have replaced this with Moringa. We start seeing improvements within 10 days.”

Combats Childhood Blindness

Lack of vitamin A (due to malnutrition) causes 70% of childhood blindness around the world. 500,000 children are going blind every year due to lack of vitamin A. The Bethesda, Maryland based International Eye Foundation, is using Moringa with its high content of beta carotene, which is converted to vitamin A by the body, to combat childhood blindness around the world.

Purifies Water

Lack of drinkable water is one of the world’s most serious threats. Water related diseases account for more than 80% of the world’s sickness. People in many developing nations simply do not have acess to clean safe water. They are left with no choice but to drink and wash with water so contaminated that we wouldn’t even dare to walk in it.

Professor Suleyman Aremu Muyibi, of the International Islamic University of Malaysia, believes Moringa seeds could potentially provide a renewable, sustainable and biodegradable material for treating global water supplies. When Moringa seeds are crushed and added to dirty, bacteria laden water, they purify the water. As part of a Nigeria-based study, Muyibi feels that such an opportunity could be especially attractive in developing countries, where roughly 1.2 billion people still lack safe drinking water, with an estimated 25,000 people dying from water-borne diseases every day.

Britain’s University of Leicester is also studying the coagulating properties of Moringa seeds for its water purifying abilities. Researchers believe the Moringa seeds would work better than the common water purifier, aluminum sulfate, which can be toxic, and have successfully replaced the imported alum system of a Malawi village with a simpler full scale system using Moringa seeds.

Related News Article:  Moringa Leaves Saving Lives in DRC

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Moringa Leaves for Tea

Apr 13, 16
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Moringa Tea – An Antioxidant-Rich Energy Booster

  • Boosts energy levels
  • Improves
  • digestive function
  • Improves mental clarity/focus
  • Promotes sound sleep
  • Provides all vital vitamins
  • Contains several important minerals
  • Is an extremely powerful free radical fighter
  • Moringa has very high levels of fibers
  • Cleanses and Detoxifies the body of infectious toxins
  • Strengthens your immune system
  • Enhances sexual desire and performance
  • Fights cancerous cells
  • Improves upon your overall physical strength
  • Normalizes and regulates cholesterol levels
  • Helps maintain healthy heart function
  • Minimizes inflammation
  • Improves Blood Circulation
  • Prevents arteriosclerosis
  • Enhances visual acuity
  • Helps stabilize normal blood sugar levels
  • Helps improve patients suffering from leukemia, dengue
  • Slows down the aging process
  • Promotes healthier and younger-looking skin
  • Alleviates diabetes
  • Fights general depression and stress
  • Supports weight loss

How to use Moringa Tea Leaves:
Put the Moringa leaves inside hot water and let the tea go by for +/- 5 minutes. Add for extra taste some honey and / or lemon.

Organic Moringa Tea Bags - All Natural 100% Certified Pure Raw Dried Leaf - Highly Nutritious Energizer and Refresher - Caffeine Free - Love it or your Money back

Organic Moringa Tea Bags – All Natural 100% Certified Pure Raw Dried Leaf – Highly Nutritious Energizer and Refresher – Caffeine Free – Love it or your Money back
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Zija’s Premium Tea is a delicious blend of traditional eastern and western herbs that aids in digestion, acts as a natural laxative and diuretic, and eliminates toxins released from fat cells during weight loss. It’s the perfect way to calm and cleanse your body.

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All Things Moringa Review

Apr 13, 16
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 “All Things Moringa”

The Story of an Amazing Tree of Life Contents Introduction Vitamin Mineral Content of Moringa Amino Acid Content of Moringa The Moringa.

Here’s a sample of the 1st 6 of 42 pages

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The Magical Moringa By: Vanita Agarwal

Apr 13, 16
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Full Review of Moringa Oleifera from the California College of Ayurveda Medicine

Introduction

Growing up in India this humble tree grew in our backyard and it never caught my attention, though I always loved the vegetable that grew on it. As I  entered into the world of Ayurveda I learnt about  this most  nutritious  tree  in the world called Moringa  only to realize that this tree was a childhood friend that I had loved and this world famous Moringa was my backyard fried the drumstick tree or Sajana as we used to call it.

In this paper I will attempt to cover:

  • 1. What is Moringa?
  • 2. The Nutritional value of Moringa
  • 3. Johns Hopkins University research on Moringa
  • 4. Health benefits of Moringa
  • 5. The qualities of Moringa from an Ayurvedic perspective

1. What is Moringa?

According to Wikipedia Moringa, a native to parts of Africa and Asia, is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Moringaceae. The name is derived from the Tamil word Murungai (முருங்கை) [1].

It contains 13 species from tropical and subtropical climates that range in size from tiny herbs to massive trees. The most widely cultivated species is Moringa oleifera, a multipurpose tree native to the foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India and cultivated throughout the tropics. M. stenopetala, an African species, is also widely grown, but to a much lesser extent than M. oleifera.

As Moringa spread from India to other tropical and subtropical areas, it adapted to local conditions. Over time, these thirteen distinct species of Moringa developed.

Scientific Classification of Moringa [1]:

Kingdom:         Plantae

(un-ranked): Angiosperms

(un-ranked): Eudicots

(un-ranked): Rosids

Order: Brassicales

Family: Moringaceae

Genus: Moringa

Scientific Names of the 13 different species of Moringa found in the world today [1]

  1. M. oleifera (Northwestern India)
  2. M. arborea (Kenya)
  3. M. borziana
  4. M. concanensis
  5. M. drouhardii (Southwestern Madagascar)
  6. M. hildebrandtii
  7. M. longituba
  8. M. ovalifolia
  9. M. peregrine
  10. M. pygmaea
  11. M. rivae
  12. M. ruspoliana
  13. M. stenopetala

Common Names of Moringa:

While native to the Indian sub-continent, Moringa has spread throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. There are over 400 names of Moringa around different parts of the world. Here are some of the many common names of Moringa: [3]

English Drumstick tree, Horseradish tree, Mother’s Best Friend, Radish tree, West Indian ben
French Bèn ailé, Benzolive, Moringa, Ben oléifère, Arbre radis du cheval
German Behenbaum, Behenussbaum, Flügelsaniger Bennussbaum, Pferderettichbaum
Italian Sàndalo ceruleo
Portuguese Acácia branca, Cedra (Brazil), Marungo, Moringuiero, Muringa
Spanish  Árbol del ben, Ben, Morango, Moringa

Africa

Benin: Patima, Ewé ilé

Burkina Faso: Argentiga

Cameroon: Paizlava, Djihiré

Chad: Kag n’dongue

Ethiopia: Aleko, Haleko

Ghana: Yevu-ti, Zingerindende

Kenya: Mronge

Malawi: Cham’mwanba

Mali: Névrédé

Niger: Zôgla gandi

Nigeria: Ewe ile, Bagaruwar maka

Senegal: Neverday, Sap-Sap

Somalia: Dangap

Sudan: Ruwag

Tanzania: Mlonge

Togo: Baganlua, Yovovoti

Zimbabwe: Mupulanga

Asia

Bangladesh: Sajina

Burma: Dandalonbin

Cambodia: Ben ailé

India: Sahjan, Murunga, Moonga;

Hindi: Sahijan, Munaga, Sajana,

Sindhi: Swanjera

Tamil: Murungai, Murunkak-kai, Morunga

Telegu: Tella-Munaga, Mulaga, Sajana

Kannada: Nugge mara, Nugge kayi;

Oriya: Munigha, Sajina

Punjabi: Sanjina, Soanjana

Rajasthani: Lal Sahinjano

Sanskrit: Sigru Shobhanjan, Sobhan jana, Shobanjana

Konkani/Goa: Moosing, Mosing

Malayalam: Sigru, Moringa, Muringa, Murinna, Morunna

Marathi: Sujna, Shevga, Shivga

Indonesia: Kalor

Pakistan: Suhanjna

Philippines: Mulangai

Sri Lanka: Murunga

Taiwan: La Mu

Thailand: Marum

Vietnam: Chùm Ngây

South and Central America, Caribbean

Brazil: Cedro

Colombia: Angela

Costa Rica: Marango

Cuba: Palo Jeringa

Dominican Republic: Palo de aceiti

El Salvador: Teberinto

French Guiana: Saijhan

Guadeloupe: Moloko

Guatemala: Perlas

Haiti: Benzolive

Honduras: Maranga calalu

Nicaragua: Marango

Panama: Jacinto

Puerto Rico: Resada

Suriname: Kelor

Trinidad: Saijan

Oceania

Fiji: Sajina

Guam: Katdes

Palau: Malungkai

2. The Nutritional value of Moringa

The tree is often referred to as “The Miracle Tree” and “Mother’s Best Friend”, which is understandable when you learn that Moringa contains a unique combination of vitamins, minerals and amino acids that make it one of the most nutritious plants ever discovered. Much of the plant is edible by humans or by farm animals.

Moringa leaves

Moringa leaves are exceptionally nutritious. When fresh, they are rich in vitamin C. When carefully dried, gram for gram Moringa leaves contain 24 times the iron of spinach, 16 times the calcium of milk, 9 times the vitamin A of carrots, many times the potassium of bananas, and every essential amino acid your body needs.

The leaves are rich in protein, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C and minerals [4]. 100g of fresh Moringa leaves have 8.3 g protein, 434 mg calcium, 404 mg potassium, 738 μg vitamin A, and 164 mg vitamin C [5].

 

Antioxidants

Moringa contains 46 powerful antioxidants – compounds that protect the body against the destructive effects of free radicals by neutralizing them before they can cause cellular damage and disease [6].

 

Vitamins

Vitamin A (Alpha & Beta-Carotene), B, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, D, E, K, Folate (Folic Acid), Biotin [6]

 

Minerals

Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Fluorine, Iron, Manganese, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Selenium, Sulphur, Zinc [6] .

 

Essential Amino acids

Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine [6].

 

Non-essential Amino Acids

Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Cystine, Glutamine, Gl ycine, Histidine, Proline, Serine, Tyrosine [6]

Vitamin & Mineral Content of Moringa: [9]

All values are per 100 grams of edible portion.

Fresh Leaves Dried Leaves
Carotene (Vit. A)* 6.78 mg 18.9 mg
Thiamin (B1) 0.06 mg 2.64 mg
Riboflavin (B2) 0.05 mg 20.5 mg
Niacin (B3) 0.8 mg 8.2 mg
Vitamin C 220 mg 17.3 mg
Calcium 440 mg 2,003 mg
Calories 92 cal 205 cal
Carbohydrates 12.5 g 38.2 g
Copper 0.07 mg 0.57 mg
Fat 1.70 g 2.3 g
Fiber 0.90 g 19.2 g
Iron 0.85 mg 28.2 mg
Magnesium 42 mg 368 mg
Phosphorus 70 mg 204 mg
Potassium 259 mg 1,324 mg
Protein 6.70 g 27.1g
Zinc 0.16 mg 3.29 mg

Amino Acid Content of Moringa [9]:

All values are per 100 grams of edible portion.

Fresh Leaves Dried Leaves
Arginine 406.6 mg 1,325 mg
Histidine 149.8 mg 613 mg
Isoleucine 299.6 mg 825 mg
Leucine 492.2 mg 1,950 mg
Lysine 342.4 mg 1,325 mg
Methionine 117.7 mg 350 mg
Phenylalinine 310.3 mg 1,388 mg
Threonine 117.7 mg 1,188 mg
Tryptophan 107 mg 425 mg
Valine 374.5 mg 1,063 mg

3. Johns Hopkins University research on Moringa [10] :

Jed W. Fahey, Sc.D. , Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences produced a very important research paper titled: “Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.” In this seminal work, they began the process of sifting through the scientific work on Moringa, as well as the traditional, as well as anecdotal evidence for Moringa’s nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic. In doing this, they found that much of the scientific evidence is beginning to support much of the traditional and anecdotal information.

4. Health Benefits of Moringa

Moringa preparations have been cited in the scientific literature as having antibiotic, antitrypanosomal, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypo-cholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic activities, as well as having considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even reduction of Schistosome cercariae titer.

Antibiotic Activity: This is clearly the area in which the preponderance evidence—both classical scientific and extensive anecdotal evidence—is overwhelming. The scientific evidence has now been available for over 50 years, although much of it is completely unknown to western scientists [10].

Phytochemicals and 6 Carbon Sugar Rhamnose: An examination of the phytochemicals of Moringa species affords the opportunity to examine a range of fairly unique compounds. In particular, this plant family is rich in compounds containing the simple sugar, rhamnose, and it is rich in a fairly unique group of compounds called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. For example, specific components of Moringa preparations that have been reported to have hypotensive, anticancer, and antibacterial activity [10].

Antibacterial and Antifungal:

Subsequent elegant and very thorough work, published in 1964 as a PhD thesis by Bennie Badgett (a student of the well-known chemist Martin Ettlinger), identified a number of glycosylated derivatives of benzyl isothiocyanate [5] (e.g. compounds containing the 6-carbon simple sugar, rhamnose) (8). The identity of these compounds was not available in the refereed scientific literature until “re-discovered” 15 years later by Kjaer and co-workers (73). Seminal reports on the antibiotic activity of the primary rhamnosylated compound then followed, from U Eilert and colleagues in Braunschweig, Germany (33, 34). They re-isolated and confirmed the identity of 4-(α-L-rhamnopy-ranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate [6] and its cognate isothiocyanate [2] and verified the activity of the latter compound against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. (Jed W. Fahey, 2005) This is clearly the area in which the preponderance of evidence—both classical scientific and extensive anecdotal evidence—is overwhelming. The scientific evidence has now been available for over 50 years, although much of it is completely unknown to western scientists [10].

ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF MORINGA STENOPETALA [12]

The main objective of this study was to isolate compounds from root wood of Moringa stenopetala and evaluate antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds. Three of the compounds namely cholest-5-en-3-ol, palmitic acid and oleic acid showed highest activity against E. coli. The observed antibacterial activities of the crude extract and the isolated compounds could justify the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of different bacterial infections [12].

  1. pylori is an omnipresent pathogen of human beings in medically underserved areas of the world, and amongst the poorest of poor populations worldwide. It is a major cause of gastritis, and of gastric and duodenal ulcers, and it is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (having been classified as a carcinogen by the W.H.O. in 1993). Cultures of H. pylori, it turned out, were extraordinarily susceptible to [2], and to a number of other isothiocyanates (37, 60). These compounds had antibiotic activity against H. pylori at concentrations up to 1000-fold lower than those which had been used in earlier studies against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. The extension of this finding to human H. pylori infection is now being pursued in the clinic, and the prototypical isothiocyanate has already demonstrated some efficacy in pilot studies [10].

Cancer Prevention:

Since Moringa species have long been recognized by folk medicine practitioners as having value in tumor therapy, we examined compounds for their cancer preventive potential. Recently, these compounds were shown to be potent inhibitors of phorbol ester (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in lymphoblastoid (Burkitt’s lymphoma) cells [10].

In one of these studies, they also inhibited tumor promotion in a mouse two-stage DMBA-TPA tumor model. In an even more recent study, Bharali and colleagues have examined skin tumor prevention following ingestion of drumstick (Moringa seedpod) extracts. In this mouse model, which included appropriate positive and negative controls, a dramatic reduction in skin papillomas was demonstrated. Thus, traditional practice has long suggested that cancer prevention and therapy may be achievable with native plants.

Role of Moringa on Gastric Ulcer and its use as Antacid

  • • A study on Moringa leaf extract to determine its effect on experimental gastric ulceration concluded that the leaf extract can be beneficially used in the management of gastric ulcer in contrast to the classical antacid, antihistamine or surgical treatment [13].
  • • Two weeks of treatment with Moringa Oleifera healed gastric ulcer damage [14].

Role of Moringa on Muscle cramps and Sleep

  • • Moringa is found to significantly reduces muscle cramps, decreases body temperature, and enhances sleep [15].

Benefits to Heart, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Atherosclerotic Plaques:

  • • Moringa has been found to have significant benefits to heart [16]. Water extract of Moringa Oleifera leaves possesses strong antioxidant activities. The prevention of artherosclerotic plaque formation in artery as well as the lipid lowering activity of the extract has been shown in rabbit fed with high cholesterol diet. M. Oleifera has high therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
  • • It works as well as Simvastatin in decreasing cholesterol, triglycerides, and inhibiting the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. [17]
  • • Moringa strengthens heart function : Prevented structural damage and prevented increases in lipid peroxidation in the myocardium [8]

Anti-fungal

  • • Moringa seeds have shown anti-fungal ability and effectiveness against athlete’s foot [18].

Prevention of Kidney stone

  • • Moringa water extract has shown to prevent kidney stone formation and dissolve already performed stones [19].

Liver fibrosis

Oral administration of Moringa seed extract in rats reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. [20]

Cancer/Chemo preventative property of Moringa

  • • A study was conducted to find out the Chemomodulatory effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice. The findings are suggestive of a possible chemo preventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis [21]

Blood glucose level and Diabetes

  • • Variable doses of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract administered orally to test the glycemic control, haemoglobin, total protein, urine sugar, urine protein and body weight. The dose of 200 mg kg(-1) decreases blood glucose level (BGL) of normal animals by 26.7 and 29.9% during FBG and OGTT studies respectively. In sub and mild diabetic animals the same dose produced a maximum fall of 31.1 and 32.8% respectively, during OGTT. In case of severely diabetic animals FBG and PPG levels were reduced by 69.2 and 51.2% whereas, total protein, body weight and haemoglobin were increased by 11.3, 10.5 and 10.9% respectively after 21 days of treatment. Significant reduction was found in urine sugar and urine protein levels from +4 and +2 to nil and trace, respectively. The test result concluded that the study validates scientifically the widely claimed use of M. oleifera as an ethnomedicine to treat diabetes mellitus. [22]

5.  Ayurvedic Perspective on Moringa

According to Vaidya Mishra [23] , an Ayurvedic expert from the Shankha Vamsa lineage, Moringa is  both a  detoxifier as well as a tonic. Whenever we detox we also use a tonic, Moringa does both. It purifies and nourishes the blood and muscle tissues, the bone marrow and the fat tissues of any toxins at the same time nourishing it.

Ayurvedic Properties/Guna of Moringa

Taste (rasa) Pungent/katu, tikta/bitter
Virya Heating/ushna
Post Digestive metabolic state (vipak): pungent/katu
Guna Light/laghu, dry/ruksha, sharp/tikshana, fluid/sara
Prabhava • Liver cleanser (yakrit sodhana)
• Purifies Blood (rakta sodhaka)
• enhances spleen/pliha
• Removes worms (krmi), acidic toxins from the blood (amavishagni)
• Relieves from tumor (gulma)
• Strengthens heart/ hridya, fat metabolism and weight loss/Medovishahara and regulates cholesterol.

In Bhava Prakash (16 Century canonical textbook of Ayurveda), part one, authored by Bhav Mishra and Rajnigantu, Moringa is called sigru, or “it moves like an arrow” in the body because it rapidly penetrates the tissues and has deep absorption and detoxification ability, making its effect on the deep bone marrow tissue swift and effective.

The Nature and Qualities of Moringa:

  • • Hot and sharp, but also bitter and pungent
  • • Pacifies vata and kapha (vatakaphapaha)
  • • Pacifies kledaka kapha and increases appetite
  • • Reduces stiffness in the jaw, relaxes the jaw and thus helps in opening the mouth (mukhajadyahar)
  • • It is appetizing (rucyo)
  • • Increases digestive flame (dipano)
  • • It cleans and clears the ulcers (vranadosanut). Vrana means ulcer.
  • • Bitter (Sigrustiktah)
  • • Pungent and heating (Katuscosnah)
  • • Reduces kapha-predominant swelling and water retention, which can also lead to vata imbalance. Swollen ankles are a common complication of excess weight. Three-four drumstick pods per meal begin to reintroduce the intelligence so the body does not accumulate toxins in the lower extremities. Over time, little by little, the swelling will go down and not return. (Kaphasophasamirajit)
  • • Creates an unfriendly environment for the growth of tumors
  • • Destroys krimi and amavisha (Krgyamvisa)
  • • By binding the toxins in the blood, and cleaning the blood (due to its hot potency and pungent taste and post digestive taste), it relieves long term burning in the skin and stomach.
  • • Prevents and rids the tumors. When the clean blood circulates, growth of tumors are prevented and also if tumors are present, gets rid of the tumors (gulmanut).
  • • The Ayurvedic verse on Moringa by Bhav prakash of Bhav Mishra cites Moringa as removing acidic toxins from the blood, cleansing the blood. This in turn lowers bad cholesterol and improves cholesterol metabolism. This correlates the power of Moringa in lowering bad cholesterol and improving cholesterol metabolism.
  • • Kidney Stones: Ushna/hot and thikshana/pungent quality of Moringa stimulates the kidneys, dysuria, increases quantity of urine, removes excess acidity in urine and calculi.

Dr. JV Hebbar, summarizes several interesting facts about Moringa in his blog [24].

Sanskrit Synonyms:

  • • Shobhanjana – Very auspicious tree
  • • Shigru – has strong, piercing qualities
  • • Teekshnagandha – Strong and pungent odor
  • • Aksheeva – relieves intoxication
  • • Mochaka – helps to cure diseases

Classical categorization:

  • According to Charaka Samhita
  • Krimighna – group of herbs that are used to treat worm infestation.
  • Svedopaga – group of herbs that are used in Svedana (preparatory procedure for Panchakarma)
  • Shirovirechanopaga – group of herbs that are used in Nasya Panchakarma treatment
  • Katuka Skandha – group of herbs that have pungent taste.
  • According to Sushruta and Vagbhata – Varunadi Group of herbs. (Hence it is an ingredient of a famous Ayurvedic medicine – Varanadi kashayam)

Medicinal Qualities of drumstick tree:

  • Rasa(taste) – Katu (Pungent), Tikta (bitter)
  • Guna(qualities) – Laghu (light to digest), Rooksha (dryness), Teekshna (strong, piercing)
  • Vipaka – katu (Moringa undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion.)
  • Veerya – Ushna – hot potency.
  • Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Vata

Varieties of Moringa:

There are three varieties of Moringa explained in Ayurvedic text books.

  1. Shyama – black variety
  2. Shveta – white variety and
  3. Rakta – red variety. It is also called as Madhu shigru.

Black variety of drumstick tree is the most common. Its qualities are:

Katu – pungent,

Teekshna – piercing, sharp, strong

Ushna – hot in potency

Madhura – slightly sweetish

Laghu – light to digest

Deepana – improves digestion

Rochana – Improves taste,

Rooksha – dry

Kshara – Has alkaline properties

Tikta – Bitter

Vidaahakrit – causes burning sensation

Sangrahi – Useful to check diarrhoea

Shukrala – Improves semen quantity and sperm count

Hrudya – Good for heart. Cardiac tonic

Pittarakta prakopana: Increases Pitta and vitiates blood. Hence, drumstick should not be consumed during bleeding disorders, duriner menstruation and for people with pimples and Pitta related skin diseases.

Chakshushya – Improves vision, good for eyes.

Kaphavataghna – Decreases imbalanced Kapha and Vata

Vidradhi – Useful in abscess. It helps in quick wound healing of abscess, upon oral intake and external application as paste.

Shvayathu – It is a good anti inflammatory herb.

Krimi – useful in worm infestation in stomach and in wounds.

Meda – helpful to decrease fat and obesity.

Apachi – Useful in relieving carbuncles.

Visha – Anti toxic. Has detoxifying action.

Pleeha – Useful in spleen related diseases

Gulma – Useful in abdominal bloating and tumors

Ganda Vrana – Useful in lymphadenitis

White variety Moringa Properties: It is quite similar to the black variety.

Dahakrut – causes burning sensation

pleehaanaam vidradhim hanti – useful in splenic abscess

VraNaghna – helps in quick wound healing

Pittaraktakrut – Increases Pitta and vitiates blood.

 

The Red Variety, called as Madhushigru

Deepana – Increases digestion power.

Sara – promotes proper bowel movements.

Moringa Leaves and Bark

The juice extract of drumstick leaves and bark are very useful in relieving pain. They act as natural analgesic. They are used both for oral intake and also for external application as paste.

In Indian household, the leaves are used to prepare Chutney and Sambar (a south-indian soup).

Moringa seeds uses: Moringa seeds are called as Shweta Maricha

Chakshushya – good for eyes

Vishanashana – anti toxic

Avrushya – do not have aphrodisiac qualities

Nasyena Shiro Artinut – When used for Nasya (in the form of powder or oil), it helps to relieve headache.

 

Moringa for Headaches:

Moringa leaves paste applied externally, or used as vegetable helps to relieve headache.

Its seed powder, in the form of nasya treatment cures headache.

 

Moringa for Diabetes: Many studies have been conducted to prove the anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effect of Moringa.

Oil prepared with Moringa is useful to relieve headache, pungent, useful in skin diseases and diabetes.

Moringa flowers are useful in intestinal worms. It balances Pitta and kapha.

Moringa Side Effects:

As explained above, it causes increase in burning sensation and is pungent. Hence, people with gastritis or sensitive stomach should use this vegetable carefully.

It is not ideal to be taken during periods, since it increases Pitta and vitiates blood.

It is also not ideal to be taken during bleeding disorders.

 

Moringa during pregnancy and lactation:

Moringa fruit is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants. Hence it can be used during pregnancy. But Moringa leaves, root bark and flowers are not indicated during pregnancy.

 

Conclusion:

Thus we can see that this humble tree is loaded with wonderful qualities that can be used for healing by an Ayurvedic practitioner. Several scientific studies have documented its great properties of healing like anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal etc. and has been used successfully for hundreds of years.

 

Bibliography/References:

  1. Moringa, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa.
  2. Moringa Tree, http://goodnewsaday.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/a-moringa-tree1.jpg.
  3. Trees for Life International, Moringa Tree. http://www.treesforlife.org/our-work/our-initiatives/Moringa.
  4. Janick, Jules, Robert E. Paull, The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts. (CABI, 2008): 509-510.
  5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Barbara Stadlmayr, U Ruth Charrondiere, et. al, West African Food Composition Table,   http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2698b/i2698b00.pdf
  6. Moringa Tree Foundation, Seeds of Hope, www.Moringatreefoundation.org 
  7. Trees for Life International, Moringa Tree. http://www.treesforlife.org/our-work/our-initiatives/Moringa
  8. Fuglie LJ, The Miracle Tree: Moringa oleifera: Natural Nutrition for the Tropics (Church World Service, Dakar 1999),   68.; revised in 2001 and published as The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa,  172
  9. All Things Moringa, H. Hiawatha Bey, www.allthingsmoringa.com
  10. Jed W. Fahey, S., “Moringa Oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.” (Vols. Copyright: ©2005 Jed W. Fahey. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, 725 N. Wolfe Street, 406 WBSB, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 21205-2185.]
  11. Moringa Leaves, Angela Mays, http://angelamays.com/files/2012/10/Moringa-overz-Benefits-Leaves.jpg
  12. Mulugeta Tesemma, Legesse Adane, Yinebeb Tariku, Diriba Muleta and Shiferaw Demise. “Isolation of Compounds from Acetone Extract of Root Wood of Moringa stenopetala and Evaluation of their Antibacterial Activities” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 7(1) (2013):  32-47
  13. Debnath S, Biswas D, Ray K, Guha D., “Moringa oleifera induced potentiation of serotonin release by 5-HT(3) receptors in experimental ulcer model”,  Phytomedicine, 18(2-3) (2011-Jan-15):  91-95
  14. Debnath, S., & Guha, D., “Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model,” Indian Journal of Exp Biol, 45(8), (2007):   726-731.
  15. Pal, S., Mukherjee, P., Saha, K., M., P., & Saha, B. “Studies on some psychopharmacological actions of Moringa oleifera Lam.”, Phototherapy Research, 10(5), (1996):  402-405.
  16. Chumark, Khunawat et. al, “The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves,” Journal of Ethno-Pharmocology 116(3) (2008 Mar 28):  439-446.
  17. Jain, Pankaj G. et al., “Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats,” Rev. bras. farmacogn., 20(6) (Dec 2010):  969-973.
  18. Chuang, P. H., Lee, C.W., Chou, J. Y., Murugan, M., Shieh, B.J., & Chen, H. M. “Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.”, Bioresour Technol, 98(1), (2007):  232-236.
  19. Karadi, R. V., Gadge, N. B., Alagawadi, K. R., & Savadi, R. V., “Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.” J Enthnopharmacol, 105(1-2), (2006): 306-311.
  20. Hamza AA, “Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.”

Food Chem Toxicol. 48(1), (2010 Jan):  345-355.

  1. Bharali R, Tabassum J, Azad MR, “Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.”  Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 4(2) (2003 Apr-Jun): 131-139.
  2. Jaiswal D, Kumar Rai P, Kumar A, Mehta S, Watal G, “Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 123(3) (2009 Jun 25): 392-396.
  3. Adhishakti LLC, Vaidya Mishra,  “Moringa Super Veggie”, http://issuu.com/vaidyamishra/docs/moringa_super_veggie
  4. Dr JV Hebbar, Moringa Benefits, Medicinal Usage and Complete Ayurveda Details, http://easyayurveda.com/2012/12/06/moringa-benefits-medicinal-usage-complete-ayurveda-details/ 
  5. Dr JV Hebbar, Easy Ayurveda, http://i0.wp.com/easyayurveda.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/shigru.jpg 

– See more at: http://www.ayurvedacollege.com/articles/students/MagicalMoringa#sthash.MlDPIpMU.dpuf

Johns Hopkins School of Medicine Research on Moringa

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Moringa oleifera:

A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.

Jed W. Fahey, Sc.D.

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PEER REVIEWED The Moringa tree (Moringa oleifera) has been praised for its nutritional and medicinal properties, and many claims have been made regarding its benefits. This first in a series of brief reviews looks at the published scientific evidence on this tree. PEER REVIEWEDJohns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, 725 N. Wolfe Street, 406 WBSB, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 21205-2185Email: jfahey@jhmi.eduTrees for Life Journal 2005, 1:5

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at: http://www.tfljournal.org/article.php/20051201124931586

Received: September 15, 2005; Accepted: November 20, 2005; Published: December 1, 2005

Copyright: ©2005 Jed W. Fahey

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Moringa appears to be a nutritional and medicinal cornucopia. The author, a Western-trained nutritional biochemist who has studied some of Moringa’s phytochemicals for almost a decade, gives a brief commentary and extensive references, and presents a table introducing some of the tree’s most intriguing features. This is the first article in a series, and will be followed by more detailed analysis of some of the strongest claims made regarding this edible plant.

AbstractMoringa oleifera, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, and sajna. Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein, (e.g. lumber, charcoal, fencing, water clarification, lubricating oil). As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of “healthful” food who are now promoting M. oleifera as a panacea. While much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous scientific evidence from anecdote. Those who charge a premium for products containing Moringa spp. must be held to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of Moringa spp. in regions where hope is in short supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to: (a) critically evaluate the published scientific evidence on M. oleifera, (b) highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and from non-peer reviewed sources that would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation, and (c) suggest directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions.

This is the first of four planned papers on the nutritional, therapeutic, and prophylactic properties of Moringa oleifera. In this introductory paper, the scientific evidence for health effects are summarized in tabular format, and the strength of evidence is discussed in very general terms. A second paper will address a select few uses of Moringa in greater detail than they can be dealt with in the context of this paper. A third paper will probe the phytochemical components of Moringa in more depth. A fourth paper will lay out a number of suggested research projects that can be initiated at a very small scale and with very limited resources, in geographic regions which are suitable for Moringa cultivation and utilization. In advance of this fourth paper in the series, the author solicits suggestions and will gladly acknowledge contributions that are incorporated into the final manuscript. It is the intent and hope of the journal’s editors that such a network of small-scale, locally executed investigations might be successfully woven into a greater fabric which will have enhanced scientific power over similar small studies conducted and reported in isolation. Such an approach will have the added benefit that statistically sound planning, peer review, and multi-center coordination brings to a scientific investigation.

The following paper is intended to be useful for both scientific and lay audiences. Since various terms used herein are likely not familiar to the lay reader, nor are many of the references readily available to either scientific or lay audiences, we encourage active on-line dialog between readers and both the author and the journal staff. Both will attempt to answer questions and to direct readers to the experts in an open and public manner.

Introduction

Moringa oleifera is the most widely cultivated species of a monogeneric family, the Moringaceae, that is native to the sub-Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. This rapidly-growing tree (also known as the horseradish tree, drumstick tree, benzolive tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, moonga, mulangay, nébéday, saijhan, sajna or Ben oil tree), was utilized by the ancient Romans, Greeks and Egyptians; it is now widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many locations in the tropics. It is a perennial softwood tree with timber of low quality, but which for centuries has been advocated for traditional medicinal and industrial uses. It is already an important crop in India, Ethiopia, the Philippines and the Sudan, and is being grown in West, East and South Africa, tropical Asia, Latin America, the Caribbean, Florida and the Pacific Islands. All parts of the Moringa tree are edible and have long been consumed by humans. According to Fuglie (47) the many uses for Moringa include: alley cropping (biomass production), animal forage (leaves and treated seed-cake), biogas (from leaves), domestic cleaning agent (crushed leaves), blue dye (wood), fencing (living trees), fertilizer (seed-cake), foliar nutrient (juice expressed from the leaves), green manure (from leaves), gum (from tree trunks), honey- and sugar cane juice-clarifier (powdered seeds), honey (flower nectar), medicine (all plant parts), ornamental plantings, biopesticide (soil incorporation of leaves to prevent seedling damping off), pulp (wood), rope (bark), tannin for tanning hides (bark and gum), water purification (powdered seeds). Moringa seed oil (yield 30-40% by weight), also known as Ben oil, is a sweet non-sticking, non-drying oil that resists rancidity. It has been used in salads, for fine machine lubrication, and in the manufacture of perfume and hair care products (158). In the West, one of the best known uses for Moringa is the use of powdered seeds to flocculate contaminants and purify drinking water (11,50,113), but the seeds are also eaten green, roasted, powdered and steeped for tea or used in curries (50). This tree has in recent times been advocated as an outstanding indigenous source of highly digestible protein, Ca, Fe, Vitamin C, and carotenoids suitable for utilization in many of the so-called “developing” regions of the world where undernourishment is a major concern.

Nutrition

Moringa trees have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. Three non-governmental organizations in particular—Trees for Life, Church World Service and Educational Concerns for Hunger Organization—have advocated Moringa as natural nutrition for the tropics.” Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is especially promising as a food source in the tropics because the tree is in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce.

A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of Moringa now exist in both the scientific and the popular literature. Any readers who are familiar with Moringa will recognize the oft-reproduced characterization made many years ago by the Trees for Life organization, that “ounce-for-ounce, Moringa leaves contain more Vitamin A than carrots, more calcium than milk, more iron than spinach, more Vitamin C than oranges, and more potassium than bananas,” and that the protein quality of Moringa leaves rivals that of milk and eggs. These readers will also recognize the oral histories recorded by Lowell Fuglie in Senegal and throughout West Africa, who reports (and has extensively documented on video) countless instances of lifesaving nutritional rescue that are attributed to Moringa (47,48). In fact, the nutritional properties of Moringa are now so well known that there seems to be little doubt of the substantial health benefit to be realized by consumption of Moringa leaf powder in situations where starvation is imminent. Nonetheless, the outcomes of well controlled and well documented clinical studies are still clearly of great value.

In many cultures throughout the tropics, differentiation between food and medicinal uses of plants (e.g. bark, fruit, leaves, nuts, seeds, tubers, roots, flowers), is very difficult since plant uses span both categories and this is deeply ingrained in the traditions and the fabric of the community (85). Thus, Table 1 in this review captures both nutritional and medicinal references as they relate to Moringa, whilst avoiding most of the better known agro-forestry and water purification applications of this plant. The interested reader is also directed to the very comprehensive reviews of the nutritional attributes of Moringa prepared by the NGOs mentioned earlier (in particular, see references 47,123,157).

Phytochemistry

Phytochemicals are, in the strictest sense of the word, chemicals produced by plants. Commonly, though, the word refers to only those chemicals which may have an impact on health, or on flavor, texture, smell, or color of the plants, but are not required by humans as essential nutrients. An examination of the phytochemicals of Moringa species affords the opportunity to examine a range of fairly unique compounds. In particular, this plant family is rich in compounds containing the simple sugar, rhamnose, and it is rich in a fairly unique group of compounds called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates (10,38). For example, specific components of Moringa preparations that have been reported to have hypotensive, anticancer, and antibacterial activity include 4-(4′-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate [1], 4-(a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate [2], niazimicin [3], pterygospermin [4], benzyl isothiocyanate [5], and 4-(a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate [6]. While these compounds are relatively unique to the Moringa family, it is also rich in a number of vitamins and minerals as well as other more commonly recognized phytochemicals such as the carotenoids (including b-carotene or pro-vitamin A). These attributes are all discussed extensively by Lowell Fuglie (47) and others, and will be the subject of a future review in this series.

(Click to enlarge)

Figure 1. Structures of selected phytochemicals from Moringa spp.: 4-(4′-O-acetyl-a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate [1], 4-(-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate [2], niazimicin [3], pterygospermin [4], benzyl isothiocyanate [5], and 4-(a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate [6].

Disease Treatment and Prevention

The benefits for the treatment or prevention of disease or infection that may accrue from either dietary or topical administration of Moringa preparations (e.g. extracts, decoctions, poultices, creams, oils, emollients, salves, powders, porridges) are not quite so well known (116). Although the oral history here is also voluminous, it has been subject to much less intense scientific scrutiny, and it is useful to review the claims that have been made and to assess the quality of evidence available for the more well-documented claims. The readers of this review are encouraged to examine two recent papers that do an excellent job of contrasting the dilemma of balancing evidence from complementary and alternative medicine (e.g. traditional medicine, tribal lore, oral histories and anecdotes) with the burden of proof required in order to make sound scientific judgments on the efficacy of these traditional cures (138,154). Clearly much more research is justified, but just as clearly this will be a very fruitful field of endeavor for both basic and applied researchers over the next decade.

Widespread claims of the medicinal effectiveness of various Moringa tree preparations have encouraged the author and his colleagues at The Johns Hopkins University to further investigate some of these possibilities. A plethora of traditional medicine references attest to its curative power, and scientific validation of these popular uses is developing to support at least some of the claims. Moringa preparations have been cited in the scientific literature as having antibiotic, antitrypanosomal, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypocholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic activities, as well as having considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even reduction of Schistosome cercariae titer (see Table 1).

Unfortunately, many of these reports of efficacy in human beings are not supported by placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials, nor have they been published in high visibility journals. For example, on the surface a report published almost 25 years ago (141) appears to establish Moringa as a powerful cure for urinary tract infection, but it provides the reader with no source of comparison (no control subjects). Thus, to the extent to which this is antithetical to Western medicine, Moringa has not yet been and will not be embraced by Western-trained medical practitioners for either its medicinal or nutritional properties.

In many cases, published in-vitro (cultured cells) and in-vivo (animal) trials do provide a degree of mechanistic support for some of the claims that have sprung from the traditional medicine lore. For example, numerous studies now point to the elevation of a variety of detoxication and antioxidant enzymes and biomarkers as a result of treatment with Moringa or with phytochemicals isolated from Moringa (39,40,76,131). I shall briefly introduce antibiosis and cancer prevention as just two examples of areas of Moringa research for which the existing scientific evidence appears to be particularly strong.

Antibiotic Activity. This is clearly the area in which the preponderance of evidence—both classical scientific and extensive anecdotal evidence—is overwhelming. The scientific evidence has now been available for over 50 years, although much of it is completely unknown to western scientists. In the late 1940’s and early 1950’s a team from the University of Bombay (BR Das), Travancore University (PA Kurup), and the Department of Biochemistry at the Indian Institute of Science in Bangalore (PLN Rao), identified a compound they called pterygospermin [4] a compound which they reported readily dissociated into two molecules of benzyl isothiocyanate [5] (23,24,25,26,77,78,79,80,81,108). Benzyl isothiocyanate was already understood at that time to have antimicrobial properties. This group not only identified pterygospermin, but performed extensive and elegant characterization of its mode of antimicrobial action in the mid 1950’s. (They identified the tree from which they isolated this substance as “Moringa pterygosperma,” now regarded as an archaic designation for “M. oleifera.”) Although others were to show that pterygospermin and extracts of the Moringa plants from which it was isolated were antibacterial against a variety of microbes, the identity of pterygospermin has since been challenged (34) as an artifact of isolation or structural determination.

Subsequent elegant and very thorough work, published in 1964 as a PhD thesis by Bennie Badgett (a student of the well known chemist Martin Ettlinger), identified a number of glyosylated derivatives of benzyl isothiocyanate [5] (e.g. compounds containing the 6-carbon simple sugar, rhamnose) (8). The identity of these compounds was not available in the refereed scientific literature until “re-discovered” 15 years later by Kjaer and co-workers (73). Seminal reports on the antibiotic activity of the primary rhamnosylated compound then followed, from U Eilert and colleagues in Braunschweig, Germany (33,34). They re-isolated and confirmed the identity of 4-(a-L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate [6] and its cognate isothiocyanate [2] and verified the activity of the latter compound against a wide range of bacteria and fungi.

Extensive field reports and ecological studies (see Table 1) forming part of a rich traditional medicine history, claim efficacy of leaf, seed, root, bark, and flowers against a variety of dermal and internal infections. Unfortunately, many of the reports of antibiotic efficacy in humans are not supported by placebo controlled, randomized clinical trials. Again, in keeping with Western medical prejudices, practitioners may not be expected to embrace Moringa for its antibiotic properties. In this case, however, the in-vitro (bacterial cultures) and observational studies provide a very plausible mechanistic underpinning for the plethora of efficacy claims that have accumulated over the years (see Table 1).

Aware of the reported antibiotic activity of [2], [5], and other isothiocyanates and plants containing them, we undertook to determine whether some of them were also active as antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori. This bacterium was not discovered until the mid-1980’s, a discovery for which the 2005 Nobel Prize in Medicine was just awarded. H. pylori is an omnipresent pathogen of human beings in medically underserved areas of the world, and amongst the poorest of poor populations worldwide. It is a major cause of gastritis, and of gastric and duodenal ulcers, and it is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (having been classified as a carcinogen by the W.H.O. in 1993). Cultures of H. pylori, it turned out, were extraordinarily susceptible to [2], and to a number of other isothiocyanates (37,60). These compounds had antibiotic activity against H. pylori at concentrations up to 1000-fold lower than those which had been used in earlier studies against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. The extension of this finding to human H. pylori infection is now being pursued in the clinic, and the prototypical isothiocyanate has already demonstrated some efficacy in pilot studies (49,168).

Cancer Prevention. Since Moringa species have long been recognized by folk medicine practitioners as having value in tumor therapy (61), we examined compounds [1] and [2] for their cancer preventive potential (39). Recently, [1] and the related compound [3] were shown to be potent inhibitors of phorbol ester (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in lymphoblastoid (Burkitt’s lymphoma) cells (57,104). In one of these studies, [3] also inhibited tumor promotion in a mouse two-stage DMBA-TPA tumor model (104). In an even more recent study, Bharali and colleagues have examined skin tumor prevention following ingestion of drumstick (Moringa seedpod) extracts (12). In this mouse model, which included appropriate positive and negative controls, a dramatic reduction in skin papillomas was demonstrated.

Thus, traditional practice has long suggested that cancer prevention and therapy may be achievable with native plants. Modern practitioners have used crude extracts and isolated bioactive compounds. The proof required by modern medicine has not been realized because neither the prevention of cancer nor the modification of relevant biomarkers of the protected state has been adequately demonstrated in human subjects. Does this mean that it doesn’t work? No. It may well work, but more rigorous study is required in order to achieve a level of proof required for full biomedical endorsement of Moringa as, in this case, a cancer preventative plant.

Acknowledgements

I thank Dr. Mark Olson for his encouragement and collaboration early in my research involvement with Moringa (joint publications are still pending). I gratefully acknowledge the Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Foundation for providing unrestricted research funds that facilitated preparation of this review and work on Moringa in my laboratory; funding was also provided by the American Institute for Cancer Research and the NCI (Grant # R01 CA93780).

Table 1. Reported nutritional, therapeutic & prophylactic uses of Moringa oleifera

 

Traditional Use
Condition/Effecta
Plant Partb Referencesc
ANT Antimicrobial / Biocidal LFSPRBGO 8, 13, 19, 24, 27, 31, 34, 64, 68, 100, 104, 114, 115, 126, 140, 151, 160, 161, 162
Bacterial LFS 25, 26, 55, 63, 77-81, 149
Urinary Tract Infection L 141
Typhoid G 47
Infection LF 47
Syphilis G 47
Dental Caries/Toothache RBG 47
Fungal/ Mycoses O 111
Thrush 88, 111
Viral
Common cold FRB 47
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) L 104
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV-1) L 84
HIV-AIDS L 1, 124
Warts S 47
Parasites
Dranunculiasis (guinea-worm) 36
Helminths LFP 47
Schistosomes S 113
Trypanosomes LR 95
Other / Not Attributed to a Specific Pathogen
Skin (Dermal) O S 15
Hepatic L 6
Fever LRGS 47
Earache G 47
External Sores/Ulcers LFRB 15
Bronchitis L 47
Throat Infection F 47
Water treatment (general) S 11, 50, 75, 86, 169
AST Asthma RG 47
CAN Cancer Therapy / Protection LFPBS 12, 17, 28, 39, 45, 59, 61, 64, 104, 115
Anti-tumor LFSB 45, 48, 57, 61, 87
Prostate L 47, 48
Radioprotective L 132
Skin P 12
CIR Circulatory/Endocrine Disorders LFSPR 56, 93
Anti-anemic L 47, 125
Anti-hypertensive LP 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 53, 83, 137
Cardiotonic R 47
Diabetes/hypoglycemia LP 6, 45, 71, 87, 101, 167
Diuretic LFRG 6, 14, 62
Hypocholestemia L 52, 94
Thyroid L 153
Tonic F 47
Hepatorenal LR 93, 120
DET Detoxification BO 76, 135, 166
Antipyretic 148
Purgative O 47
Snakebite B 47
Scorpion-bite B 47
DIG Digestive Disorders LSRBG 53
For TRTMNT of:
Colitis LB 47
Diarrhea LR 47, 62, 64
Digestif B 47
Dysentery LG 47
Flatulence R 47
Ulcer / Gastritis LS 3, 115, 136
INF Inflammation LFSPRG 14, 28, 35, 45, 62, 64, 68, 110, 131, 160, 161
Rheumatism LFSPRG 28
Joint Pain P 47
Edema R 47
Arthritis S 47
IMM Immunity SO 69
Immune-stimulant S 69
Lupus O 28
NER Nervous Disorders LFRBGO 58, 59, 62, 96
Anti-spasmodic SR 14, 53
Epilepsy RB 47
Hysteria FRBO 47
Headache LRBG 47
NUT Nuritional LSBO 6, 7, 18, 22, 28, 30, 31, 32, 46, 47, 48, 51, 65, 66, 67, 70, 92, 102, 112, 116, 133, 163
Antinutritional factors B 88, 89, 90, 110, 127, 128, 139, 156, 164, 165
Antioxidant LO 110, 147
Carotenoids L 29, 105, 152
Energy LSO 85
Goitrogen S 2
Iron deficiency LS 16
Oil quality O 5, 98, 110, 158, 159
Protein LS 47
Vitamin/Mineral deficiency LS 7, 9, 54, 56, 85, 119
REP Reproductive Health LFPRBGO 44, 53, 64, 121, 122
Abortifacient FRBG 106, 107, 155
Aphrodisiac RB 47
Birth Control B 45, 53, 142-146
Lactation Enhancer L 47
Prostate function O 47
SKI Skin Disorders LRSG 160, 161
Antiseptic L 47
Astringent R 47
Pyodermia S 15
Rubefacient RG 47
Vesicant R 47
GEN General Disorders/Conditions LFSPRBO 4, 6, 8, 20, 21, 45, 48, 64, 66, 67, 68, 73, 74, 82, 91, 92, 99, 102, 103, 109, 116, 117, 118, 123, 125, 128, 129, 130, 134, 150, 163
Bladder OS 47
Catarrh LF 47
Gout RO 47
Hepatamegaly R 47
Lactation L 47
Low.Back/Kidney Pain R 47
Scurvy LSRBO 47
Splenomegaly R 47
“Tonic” LFPSO 47

 

a It is very difficult in some cases to separate the effects of severe nutritional deficiencies (e.g. Vitamin C) from sequelae (e.g. scurvy) which transcend categorization by organ systems or classification into single disease states.
b Plant parts are designated by their first letters (in bold):
LeavesFlowersSeeds

Pods (drumsticks)

Roots

Bark

Gum

Oil (from seeds)

c Many of the original citations have been collected by Lowell J. Fuglie, [and can be found in his excellent treatise entitled The Miracle Tree, (47)] and by Manuel Palada (116), Julia Morton (102), and Trees For Life (157). Most other compendiums in recent publications or on commercial websites appear to be highly derivative of these seminal works.

References

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  128. Ramachandran C, KV Peter, and PK Gopalakrishnan (1980) Drumstick (Moringa oleifera): A multipurpose Indian Vegetable. Economic Botany 34(3): 276-283. NUT GEN
  129. Rao Kurma S, and SH Mishra (1993) Drumstick polysaccharide as pharmaceutical adjuvant. Indian Journal of Natural Products 9(1): 3-6. GEN
  130. Rao PP, BM Acharya and TJ Dennis (1996) Pharmacogniostic study on stembark of Moringa oleifera Lam. (Sigru). B.M.E.B.R. 17(3-4): 141-151. ANT GEN
  131. Rao KNV, V Gopalakrishnan, V Loganathan, and S Shanmuganathan (1999) Antiinflammatory activity of Moringa oleifera Lam. Ancient Science of Life 18(3-4): 195-198. INF
  132. Rao AV, PU Devi, and R Kamath (2001) In vivo radioprotective effect of Moringa oleifera leaves. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 39: 858-863. CAN
  133. Reddy NS, and G Bhatt (2001) Contents of minerals in green leafy vegetables cultivated in soil fortified with different chemical fertilizers. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 56: 1-6. NUT
  134. Ross IA (1999) Medicinal Plants of the World. Humana Press, Inc., Totowa, NJ. pp 231-239. GEN
  135. Ruckmani K, S Kavimani, et al. (1998) Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. on paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 60(1): 33-35. DET
  136. Ruckmani K, S Davimani, B Jayakar, and R Anandan (1998) Anti-ulcer activity of the alkali preparation of the root and fresh leaf juice of Moringa oleifera Lam. Ancient Science of Life 17(3): 220-223. DIG
  137. Saleem R, and J Meinwald (2000) Synthesis of novel hypotensive aromatic thiocarbamate glycosides. Journal of the Chemical Society Perkins Transactions 1: 391-394. CIR
  138. Sampson W (2005) Studying herbal remedies. New England Journal of Medicine 353(4): 337-339.
  139. Sena LP, DJ Vanderjagt, C Rivera, AT Tsin, I Muhamadu, O Mahamadou, M Millson, A Pastuszyn, and RH Glew (1998) Analysis of nutritional components of eight famine foods of the Republic of Niger. Plant Foods and Human Nutrition 52: 17-30. NUT
  140. Sen Gupta KP, NC Ganguli, and B Bhattacharjee (1956) Bacteriological and pharmacological studies of a vibriocidal drug derived from an indigenous source. The Antiseptic 53(4): 287-292. ANT
  141. Shaw BP, and P Jana (1982) Clinical assessment of Sigru (Moringa oelifera Lam) on Mutrakrichra (lower urinary tract infection) NAGARJUN 231-235. ANT
  142. Shukla S, R Mathur, AO Prakash (1988) Biochemical and physiological alterations in female reproductive organs of cyclic rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Acta Europaea Fertilitatis 19: 225-232. REP
  143. Shukla S, R Mathur, et al. (1988) Anti-implantation efficacy of Moringa oleifera Lam. and Moringa concanensis Nimmo in rats. International Journal Of Crude Drug Research 26(1): 29-32. REP
  144. Shukla S, R Mathur, and AO Prakash (1988) Antifertility profile of the aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22: 51-62. REP
  145. Shukla S, R Mathur, AO Prakash (1989) Histoarchitecture of the genital tract of ovariectomized rats treated with an aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera roots. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 25: 249-261. REP
  146. Shukla S, R Mathur, et al. (1989) Biochemical alterations in the female genital tract of ovariectomized rats treated with aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. Pakistan Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research 32(4): 273-277. REP
  147. Siddhuraju P, and K Becker (2003) Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts of total phenolic constituents from three different agroclimatic origins of drumstick tree (Moringa oleifera Lam.) leaves. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51: 2144-2155. NUT
  148. Singh KK, and K Kumar (1999) Ethnotherapeutics of some medicinal plants used as antipyretic agents among the tribals of India. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany. 23(1): 135-141. DET
  149. Singha P, J Begum, et al. (1993) Antibacterial activity of some higher plants of Chittagong University Campus. Chittagong University Studies Part II Science 17(1): 97-101. ANT
  150. Soni PL (1995) Some commercially important Indian gum exudates. Indian Forester 121(8): 754-759. GEN
  151. Spiliotis V, S Lalas, et al. (1998) Comparison of antimicrobial activity of seeds of different Moringa oleifera varieties. Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Letters 8(1): 39-40. ANT
  152. Subadra S, J Monica, et al. (1997) Retention and storage stability of beta-carotene in dehydrated drumstick leaves (Moringa oleifera). International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 48(6): 373-379. NUT
  153. Tahiliani P, A Kar (2000) Role of Moringa oleifera leaf extract in the regulation of thyroid hormone status in adult male and female rats. Pharmacological Research 41(3):319-323. CIR
  154. Talalay P, and P Talalay (2001) The importance of using scientific principles in the development of medicinal agents from plants. Academic Medicine 76(3): 238-247.
  155. Tarafder CR (1983) Ethnogynecology in relation to plants: 2. Plants used for abortion. Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 4(2): 507-516. REP
  156. Terra, G.J.A. 1966. Tropical vegetables, vegetable growing in the tropics and subtropics especially of indigenous vegetables. Communications No. 54e of the Department of Agricultural Research; Publication of the Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. NUT
  157. Trees For Life (2005) Moringa Book. http://www.treesforlife.org/project/moringa/book/default.asp. NUT GEN
  158. Tsaknis J, S Lalas, V Gergis, V Douroglou, and V Spiliotis (1999) Characterization of Moringa oleifera variety Mbololo seed oil of Kenya. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 47: 4495-4499. NUT
  159. Tsaknis J, V Spiliotis, et al. (1999) Quality changes of Moringa oleifera, variety Mbololo of Kenya, seed oil during frying. Grasas y Aceites. 50(1): 37-48. NUT
  160. Udupa SL, AL Udupa, et al. (1998) A comparative study on the effect of some indigenous drugs on normal and steroid-depressed healing. Fitoterapia 69(6): 507-510. ANT INF SKI
  161. Udupa SL, AL Udupa, et al. (1994) Studies on the anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of Moringa oleifera and Aegle marmelos. Fitoterapia 65(2): 119-123. ANT INF SKI
  162. Villasenor IM (1994) Bioactive metabolites from Moringa oleifera Lam. KIMIKA 10: 47-52. ANT
  163. Verdcourt B (1985) A synopsis of the Moringaceae. Kew Bulletin 40: 1-23. NUT GEN
  164. Villasenor IM, CY Lim-Sylianco, and F Dayrit (1989) Mutagens from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Mutation Research 224: 209-212. NUT
  165. Villasenor IM, P Finch, CY Lim-Sylianco, F Dayrit (1989) Structure of a mutagen from roasted seeds of Moringa oleifera. Carcinogenesis 10: 1085-1087. NUT
  166. Warhurst AM, SL Raggett, GL McConnachie, SJT Pollard, V Chipofya, and GA Codd (1997) Adsorption of the cyanobacterial hepatotoxin Microcystin-LR by a low-cost activated carbon from the seed husks of the pan-tropical tree, Moringa oleifera. The Science of the Total Environment 207: 207-211. DET
  167. William F, S Lakshminarayanan, et al. (1993) Effect of some Indian vegetables on the glucose and insulin response in diabetic subjects. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition 44(3): 191-196. CIR
  168. Yanaka A, S Zhang, M Yamamoto, JW Fahey (2005) Daily intake of sulforaphane-rich broccoli sprouts improves gastritis in H.pylori-infected human subjects. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention 14(11, Suppl): 2754s.
  169. Yongbai KA (2005) Studies on the potential use of medicinal plants and macrofungi (lower plants) in water and waste water purification. www.biotech.kth.se/iobb/news/kenneth04.doc. ANT

Source: http://www.tfljournal.org/article.php/20051201124931586

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Moringa Used in Ancient Egypt

Apr 11, 16
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Moringa Amphora

ancient moringa
From the Tomb of Maiherpri:18th Dynasty

Jars, Vases & Bowls

This is especially significant, since the expensive oils which some of them held were usually among the first items to be stolen because they did not keep long. Some of the dockets attached to the jars indicated that they had contained b3k-oil, a very expensive commodity made from moringa nuts. The calcite vase seen on the far right below in this plate still contained about three quarts of rancid oil when it was discovered.

The oil from the Moringa Oleifera nut was used by the ancient Egyptians. This extremely fast growing woody species (Moringa oleifera, Moringaceae)  could open up a new category of crops: “vegetable trees.” It also produces masses of very small leaflets that are boiled and eaten like spinach. Being so small, the leaflets sun dry in just a few hours and can then be put in a jar and stored for the off-season, a time when dietary minerals and vitamins are often scarce. Moringa seeds could be employed to make water safer for drinking and cooking.

Maiherpri – King Moringa

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Maiherpri ( Lion of the Battlefield )
in hieroglyphs

Papyrus of Maiherpri

Maiherperi was an Ancient Egyptian noble of Nubian origin buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV36. He probably lived during the rule of Thutmose IV, and received the honour of a burial in the Valley of the Kings, the royal necropolis. His name can be translated as Lion of the Battlefield,[1]. Amongst his titles were Child of the Nursery and Royal Fan-Bearer of the Right Hand Side. There is speculation that the first title signified that he grew up in the royal nursery as a prince of a vassal territory, or perhaps was the son of a lesser wife or concubine of the pharaoh.[2] He was among the first during the New Kingdom to hold the second title, and was literally true in that he was by the pharaoh’s side, likely as an advisor or bodyguard.[3] This same title was also used to denote the Viceroys of Kush later in the New Kingdom.[4]

Contents

Tomb of Maiherpri

In Maiherperi’s tomb, a papyrus was found depicting him with literally “blackish” skin, leading scholars to believe he was in fact Nubian or of Nubian descent.[5] The papyrus in question was the Book of the Dead, in the eyes of O’Connor and Cline “[c]ertainly the most famous and arguably the most beautiful” Book of the Dead.[6].

The mummy was unwrapped by Georges Daressy in March 1901,[7] revealing a mummy whose dark skin matched that depicted on his copy of the Book of the Dead, and thought that this was likely Maiherperi’s natural colour, unchanged by the mummification process.[8] He also had tightly curled, woolly hair, which turned out a wig that had been glued to his scalp.[9]

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Moringa grows in over 80 countries

Apr 11, 16
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Moringa [Ben/Behen], is known as the miracle tree – and with good reason.  It grows to a height of only 7 – 12 m and has a lifespan of a mere 20 years.  Though not as impressive in stature or longevity as the beloved baobab, it can more than hold its own in the impressive stakes.

Moringa has a short, but intense life, growing like the clappers.  It can grow up to 4 m in in a season – taking a mere 10 months from seed to tree!  As the maxim goes ‘Dynamite comes in small packets’ – and the mighty moringa sure validates this claim, and then some.

Naturally Healthy Moringa  now has stocks avaailable  from various suppliers like Zija International also :

  • Powdered leaves to add to soups, stews, juices and smoothies.
  • Tea for making herbal infusions.
  • Capsules for taking internally as a supplement.
  • High quality oil for massage and manufacture.

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Moringa grows in over 80 countries, is known by over 200 different common names, and is referenced in over 300 folk medicine remedies.  Also known as the Drumstick Tree, and Famine Tree, Moringa’s virtues have even been passionately extolled by Dr Oz on TV, and lauded in print in the National Geographic [Nov 2012] magazine.

ancient moringaMoringa is one of the most ancient oils known to humans and its healing properties, which have been documented by ancient cultures [Greeks, Romans, Egyptians], have stood the test of time – and still come out with flying colours to this day.

All parts of this revered tree, native to Africa and India, are used for their pharmacological and nutritional properties, hence the ‘Miracle tree’ appellation. Moringa’s leaves and seeds are full of health-giving nutrients and skin-loving fatty acids.  It is used in cooking, cosmetics, medicine and lubrication – and even has potential as a biofuel.

Along with the other unique African oils, Moringa has become the latest darling of the natural and commercial cosmetic industries, due to its remarkable skin-smoothing, radiance-boosting, decongesting, detoxifying, moisturising, conditioning and anti-ageing properties.

Moringa and stability

Moringa amphora

Moringa amphora

Besides its many other virtues, Moringa oil possesses exceptional oxidative stability, which may explain why the Egyptians placed vases of this oil in their tombs to assist them in the afterlife  – so chance is a good thing that Cleopatra knew all about this facet of Moringa’s impressive profile!

Here is a picture of the Moringa Amphora from the Tomb of Maiherpri * [his name can be translated as Lion of the Battlefield].  Some of the dockets attached to the jars indicated that they had contained b3k-oil, a very expensive commodity made from Moringa nuts.

* Maiherpri was an Ancient Egyptian noble of Nubian origin buried in the Valley of the Kings, in tomb KV36.  He probably lived during the rule of Thutmose IV, [the 8th Pharoah of the 18th dynasty of Egypt, who ruled in approximately the 14th century BC.

For the aromatic perfumers out there ..…..…

Did you know that Moringa oil was used for perfumery long before the advent of alcohol  distillation  and  other modern day diluent chemicals?

Distillation dates back to more or less the 4th century BC.

During these times aromatics were extracted by steeping plant material or splinters of fragrant wood in oil to extract the essential oils.  The macerated material would eventually be placed in cloth and wrung out until the last vestiges of aroma had been retrieved.  Alternatively the material was boiled with oil and water and the aromatic essential oil skimmed off.  Besides Moringa, other oils like balanos [from the seeds of the Balanites aegyptiaca tree], castor, linseed, olive, sesame, safflower and sometimes almond were used.

Traditional perfumers however held [and hold] Moringa oil in esteem for its exceptional fixative powers i.e. it can absorb and retain even the most elusive scents, locking the aromatic molecules into the oil.  Another one of the reasons for my enduring love affair with this divine oil.

There are reports of Moringa being used in cosmetic preparations as far back as 1400 BC, wherein an allegedly successful remedy to treat wrinkles consisted of: gum of frankincense wax; fresh Moringa oil and Cyprus grass [Cyperus alternifolius] – a grass-like marsh plant of the Cyperaceae [or sour grasses] family that is also used to make papyrus.  The mixture was ground finely, mixed with fermented plant juice, and applied daily.  Let me know if you try it and it works!

These days Moringa seed oil is in much demand for natural and luxury cosmetics because of its stability profile and resistance to rancidity, which is due to high levels of powerful antioxidants.

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Purify water with the moringa tree

Apr 11, 16
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Moringa seed powder can be used as a quick and simple method for cleaning dirty river water. Studies showed that this simple method of filtering not only diminishes water pollution, but also harmful bacteria. The moringa powder joins with the solids in the water and sinks to the bottom. This treatment also removes 90-99% of bacteria contained in water.

Using natural materials to clarify water is a technique that has been practiced for centuries and of all the materials that have been used, seeds of moringa tree have been found to be one of the most effective.

Studies have been conducted since the early 1970’s to test the effectiveness of moringa tree seeds for treating water. These studies have confirmed that the moringa seeds are highly effective in removing suspended particles from water with medium to high levels of turbidity (moringa tree seeds are less effective at treating water with low levels of turbidity).

Solutions of moringa tree seeds for water treatment may be prepared from moringa seed kernels or from the solid residue remaining after oil extraction (presscake). Moringa tree seeds, seed kernels or dried presscake can be stored for long. Water purification methods using seeds from the Moringa tree have been known about for centuries, but their use has been limited geographically.

In order to make an effective water purification system, the Moringa tree seeds are dried and then ground into a powder. Unlike other particles in the water such as clay, bacteria, and other toxic materials which are negatively charged, the protein in the Moringa tree seed powder is positively charged, thereby attracting the negatively charged particles like a magnet. The flocs formed by the floculation process can then be easily removed by allowing the water to settle, or removed by filtration.

Moringa tree seeds treat water on two levels, acting both as a coagulant and an antimicrobial agent. It is generally accepted that moringa tree works as a coagulant due to positively charged, water-soluble proteins, which bind with negatively charged particles (silt, clay, bacteria, toxins, etc) allowing the resulting “flocs” to settle to the bottom or be removed by filtration.

Application of plant flocculants such as Moringa tree is highly recommended for domestic water purification in developing countries, where people are used to drink contaminated turbid water. Moringa tree does not guarantee that the raw water ends up completely (100%) free of pathogenic germs. It is cleaned and drinkable but not completely purified.

Within the past ten years, the Moringa tree has grown from being practically unknown, even unheard of, to being a new and promising nutritional and economic resource for developing countries. The Moringa tree leaves, which are easy to grow and rich in proteins, vitamins and minerals, are becoming widely used in projects fghting against malnutrition. Producing Moringa tree leaves is also a means of generating agricultural income, developing the food processing industry and founding new businesses.

How to get pregnant naturally

Apr 09, 16
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Infertility may be broadly defined as the inability to get pregnant after trying for at least one year without using any birth control. In Western countries, infertility affects an estimated 15% of the population. While a part of them are trying to conceive using alternative methods like IVF, others prefer to optimize the chances of getting pregnant naturally. Using natural compounds like those found in Moringa Olifera capsules, leaves, powder, or tea has been scientifically proven to enhance a positive healthy environment for ovulation to occur. Trying to get pregnant naturally may be very important, since many couples and individuals who are diagnosed with infertility may be able to get pregnant without treatment (and hence should be defined as “subfertile” rather than “infertile”).

When trying to get pregnant naturally, the most important factor is to understand the menstrual cycle and the timing of ovulation, which leads to the optimum chances of getting impregnated. Usually, ovulation occurs around the fourteenth day, and hence, to get pregnant naturally, a couple should have as much sexual intercourse as possible between the twelfth and the fifteenth day. Different women have slightly varying menstrual cycles.Hence, to improve the chances of becoming pregnant, it is imperative to study one’s periods, and calculate exactly when one ovulates.

Determining the signs of ovulation.

To check for the right timings of ovulation, a woman can do one, or many, of the following things:

. Keep a calendar. Keeping a calendar to chart the days is an easy and effective method to determine the right time to have sexual intercourse.

. Keep a check on vaginal fluids. Mucus discharge from the vagina usually becomes heavier, thinner, clearer and stretchy during ovulation when compared to the usual times.

. Feel the inside of the vagina. During ovulation, the cervix is softer and slightly more open than usual.

. Keep tabs on any sharp pain in the abdomen. Sharp pains in the abdomen, or some slight spotting, may be indicative of ovulation.

. Other physical conditions. Headaches, bloating, breast tenderness and pain may be signs of ovulation.

Having checked for ovulation, there are some other things that an individual can do to increase the chances of getting pregnant naturally. These include lying still for a while after having sexual intercourse, avoiding the bathroom for about thirty minutes after having sexual intercourse, and most importantly, figuring out how many times one should have sexual intercourse.

Men often neglect their own part to play in this whole scenario. The sperms need to be of the correct constitution, correct shape and correct motility too, or else, however fertile the women may be, impregnation does not occur naturally. A way of ensuring that the sperms are undamaged is by wearing boxers instead of briefs. Boxers help in keeping the testicles from overheating and damaging sperms.

For both women and men, the anatomical and hormonal factors are not the only ones to be monitored and corrected. In most cases, failure to conceive may result from an improper diet, undue stress, the use of drugs like alcohol and nicotine, and even environmental factors such as proximity to harmful doses of pesticides. Abstinence from such factors goes a long way in ensuring a pregnancy.

One should always keep in mind that the holistic approach to solving a problem is the optimal way to tackle infertility. Getting regular health checkups, taking supplements to combat existing problem, exercising and stress reduction techniques are only part of the holistic solution to infertility which considers the problem as part of a whole unlike the conventional approach which tackles a specific body organ in its attempt to heal. The holistic approach is not only a surefire way to increase your chances of conception it also guarantees a safe and healthy pregnancy.book

This article is based on the book, “Pregnancy Miracle” by Lisa Olson. Lisa is an author, researcher, nutritionist and health consultant who dedicated her life to creating the ultimate pregnancy solution guaranteed to permanently reverse the root of infertility, help you get pregnant quickly and naturally and dramatically improve the overall quality of your life,  without the use prescription medication and without any surgical procedures. Learn more by visiting her website:
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Book Review:

Why Is Pregnancy Miracle The Best Selling Infertility Cure Book In Internet History, With Thousands Of Satisfied (And Now Proud Mothers) Women In 127 Countries Worldwide?

Pregnancy Miracle is the #1 best selling infertility Cure ebook in the history of the Internet for a reason…

Thousands of women of almost every age have completely reversed any infertility issues they had and got pregnant naturally, without drugs, risky surgery or “magic potions” simply by using the clinically proven, scientifically-accurate step by step method found inside this amazing Pregnancy guidebook.

Lisa Olson, a certified nutritionist, health consultant and author has not just pumped out yet another “pregnancy program” into an already over-saturated market. Lisa’s Pregnancy Miracle can be more accurately described as an “Pregnancy Bible.” It is quite simply one of the most comprehensive, complete, and precise guides to infertility freedom you will ever read. What makes it so much different than other pregnancy publications on the market?

Well first of all, it’s not just a “infertility help” program, it’s an infertility cure program. This may seem like semantics or wordplay at first, but once you’ve read just the first chapters, there will be no doubt in your mind that pursuing “help with your pregnancy” is not only the wrong goal, it may be the reason that you’ve failed to get pregnant until now. Pregnancy Miracle shows you exactly why you should fix the internal problem that’s hindering your chances of getting pregnant and then goes on to show you exactly how to do it.

Secondly, what makes Pregnancy Miracle different is the amount of attention that is paid to each and every element required to get pregnant the natural way. Pregnancy Miracle not only thoroughly discusses the lies, myths and fallacies surrounding a very confusing subject, it is simply the most detailed book about pregnancy and infertility, Chinese Medicine and holistic health ever written.

The Pregnancy Miracle book is quite extensive (250 pages of rock solid content) which focuses on 100% natural method for getting pregnant quickly. That means there aren’t recommendations for harsh prescription drugs or surgeries with nasty side effects. In Pregnancy Miracle core formula section (The 3 step system) – Nothing is held back. In this section, Lisa gives a detailed overview of each step, and then dives into the specifics in a perfect chronological order. There are also outstanding charts and checklists which make it very easy to know where you are at in the program and follow it.

Because the Pregnancy Miracle program is not a quick fix ‘fairy tale’ cure but a complete holistic solution aimed at eliminating the root cause of fertility problems(regardless of your age) and ensure your will get pregnant quickly, it does take work and persistence to complete. “The dictionary is the only place success comes before work” says Lisa, as she emphasizes the “no quick fix” philosophy behind the entire book.

If there is any drawback to the Pregnancy Miracle ebook, it’s that it contains so much information, that some readers may find it a bit overwhelming. Those who are looking for a quick start type of pregnancy program, might be a bit intimated at first. The good part however, is that even these types of readers can feel confident and assured that it will be worth the effort because this will literally be the last book they ever have to buy on the subject.

Who will benefit most from Pregnancy Miracle?

In the broadest sense, anyone and everyone who wants to get pregnant naturally and regain their natural inner balance will benefit from Pregnancy Miracle. This ebook is honestly for everyone. Even women without fertility issues. This is a total health rejuvenation program better than 98% of the nutrition and alternative health books on the market. In fact, the advice in this ebook is guaranteed to help you with any other health condition you might have, especially if you suffer from hormonal disorders, digestive problems, insulin related disorders, allergies and acne.

In terms of graphic design, Pregnancy Miracle is a clean and professionally formatted PDF e-book. It is well organized and ideal for printing and reading in the comfort of your own home.

This impressive and unique publication has changed many lives and the hundreds of inspiring testimonials and success stories are found on the Pregnancy Miracle website archives as proof.

The Bottom line?

Anyone looking for a quick fix solution to getting pregnant, anyone looking to be told fairy-tales, and anyone looking for a “magic bullet”, pills, over the counters, ‘get pregnant in 2 weeks’ hyped up programs should not waste his or her time with Pregnancy Miracle.

On the other hand, anyone searching for the truth about pregnancy, fertility issues and alternative health and who is ready and willing to put in some work and make the lifestyle changes necessary to get pregnant fast and give birth to healthy children, will find Pregnancy Miracle to be one of the best investments they ever made in their lives. Click here to learn more about Lisa Olson’s Pregnancy Miracle

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