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Growing Moringa Oleifera in Australia from Seeds.

Growing Moringa Oleifera in Australia from Seeds.

Jun 03, 16
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Description:

The Moringa Oleifera tree is an extremely fast growing tree that can get to 10 meters. The tree relies on a deep tap root that helps it obtain its nutrients from deep underground. The timber is soft and the plant in the early stages will need support as it will bend over in windy conditions. It requires warm climates and sunny conditions.

Climate:

Moringa Oleifera trees grow well in warm to hot climates, they are a tropical to sub-tropical plant. If planted in these regions they will produce leaf or pods year round.

They do not perform well in cold climates and go dormant below 18 degrees Celsius. They can from time to time handle a light frost.

Water:

Moringa can grow in arid regions with little water. They respond well to moderate watering and will produce more leaf. Your Moringa Tree will let you know when it’s thirsty. If the leaves look a little dehydrated and dry, it’s time for some water.

If the roots are left in standing water or waterlogged clay they will die within a few days. Don’t overwater your Moringa Plant.

Soil:

Moringa can grow in poor well drained soil conditions, but will flourish in good well drained soil or sand. The better the soil quality the better nutrients you will get from your leaves.

Pot plants:

Moringa can grow relatively well in pots, with regular water and organic fertiliser. As the Moringa tree grows a deep tap root it is essential to use a deep pot so that the tap root can grow longer.

Moringa can be tricky to repot and care must be taken not to damage the tap root. If your tap root has grown through your base of your pot and you need to repot, then  it is suggested that you cut the pot to get the root out rather than force it out and damage the root.

They require full sun to part shade. They can be grown inside for a short period of time to shelter them from cold weather.

Pruning:

The Moringa tree if unpruned will grow tall and thin. The wood of the Moringa tree is fairly light weight and lacks strength. Also if your tree gets to 10 meters tall it will make it difficult to harvest the leaves. To keep your Moringa tree bushy and manageable prune when required. You will notice that your Moringa tree will respond very quickly and produce more branches and leaves in a very short period of time. Larger braches that have been cut can be grown as cuttings by placing them directly into the ground. Smaller green branches should be added to the base of the Moringa Tree as mulch and fertiliser.

Seed cultivation:

The natural cycle of the Moringa tree is as follows.
During the dry hot (pre monsoon) period in the tropics, the Moringa tree drops the majority of its leaves and puts its energy into growing its seed pods. These seeds pods then dry on the tree and begin to crack open. They can stay attached to the tree for a couple of months in their dry state. When the first big storms come with lots of rain and wind the seed pods are blown off the trees and the seed pods break open upon impact of the ground. The seeds are then saturated by water and can be totally submersed for a day or 2. This then triggers the seed to germinate, and the tree grows.

To replicate this, place your seeds into a container of water and let them soak for 24 hours. Then plant your seeds in a pot or container to get them started.

The soil you plant into should be of a sandy nature. Use 50% river sand and 50% light friable potting mixture. Water regularly and don’t let them dry out at this stage. After 5 days to 2 weeks you should see the seeds starting to grow. If you are using seed raising trays you can transplant after 2 weeks or when the tree is 10 to 15 cm high. Be careful as any damage to the tap root at this stage will kill it. Then repot into a larger pot using a sand based potting mix, or sow directly into the ground.

Pest control:

The advantage of the Moringa Tree is that it is naturally pest resistant. Occasionally you may find a small sap sucking insect that has taken up residence on your tree. This is usually localised and you will see that the leaves have a deformed look to them. The best way to deal with this is to cut off the infected area and discard away from your plant.

Never spray your Moringa Tree with pesticide as this totally defeats the purpose of growing your Moringa tree.  Don’t use any sprays at all, just the mechanical method. And the occurrences of sap suckers are very rare.

Fertiliser:

Moringa can grow without fertiliser. But regular feeding with a good organic fertiliser will make the tree power on and produce and abundant amount of nutrient rich leaves. Any Moringa leaves that you are not doing to consume yourself make a fantastic fertiliser not just for your Moringa tree but for other plants as well.

Moringa pods and seed:

(Click image to enlarge)

 Dry_Moringa_seed_pods  Moringa_Pods_and_seed  Moringa_in_seed_tray  Moringa_6_weeks_old  Moringa_leaves
 bee_on_Moringa_Flower_1  big_bee_on_Moringa_Flower_1  Moringa_Seed_pod_opening_1  The_Moringa_Farm_1  Moringa_Seed_Pods_1
 The_Moringa_Farm_2_1  Moringa_Flowers_1  Moringa_leaf_-_flower_and_butterfly_1
Video about Moringa plants surviving in cold climates.

Although the plants survived, the usable leaves from the plants grown in cold climates is very low.

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Moringa and Anti Stomach Cancer Research

Jun 03, 16
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save lives

At the Moringaling conference in the Philippines Dr Jed Fahey spoke about:
Sulforaphane effects on Helicobacter Pylori Infection.
Dr Fahey has previously done numerous experiments with Moringa.Helicobacter Pylori is recognized as a carcinogen by the World Health Organisation.
Infected individuals have 3- to 6-fold higher risk of gastric carcinoma. (STOMACH CANCER & LYMPHOMA)
Dr Fahey’s studies were carried out using Broccoli Sprouts. The focus was on Sulforaphane, is also found in Moringa.

What is Sulforaphane
Sulforaphane is a molecule found within the isothiocyanate group of organosulfur compounds. Sulforaphane has anticancer and antimicrobial properties. It is found in such vegetables as Moringa, broccoli, cabbages and Brussels sprouts .

Foods that contain Sulforaphane Moringa
“Although Sulforaphane (from broccoli) and other isothiocyanates (including those from Moringa) are not direct antioxidants, they activate transcription of phase 2 cytoprotective genes, whose products provide chemically versatile, often catalytic, and prolonged indirect antioxidant protection.”

“We discovered that Sulforaphane is a highly effective antibiotic against all 48 strains of H. pylori tested It is equally effective against strains resistant to the 2 antibiotics most commonly used to treat H. pylori infections in people.”
Source. Dr Jed W. Fahey, 11/22/2013 Presentation 5th Moringa Congress, Clark, Philippines

A dietary method of controlling H. pylori infection with broccoli sprouts may have been uncovered, according to findings published in Cancer Prevention Research.

Moringa how Isothiocyanates work
Researchers from Japan and John’s Hopkins in Baltimore did a study with 50 Japanese adults infected with Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori to eat either 2.5 oz. (70 g) of broccoli sprouts which contain Sulforaphane or alfalfa sprouts which do not contain Sulforaphane, every day for two months. (Sulforaphane is found in Moringa)

Those who ate broccoli sprouts saw a greater than 40% reduction in HpSA in their fecal matter. There was no change in HpSA among those who ate alfalfa sprouts.
The HpSA levels returned to pre-treatment levels eight weeks after people stopped eating the broccoli sprouts, suggesting that although they reduce H. pylori colonization, they do not eradicate it.

References
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/press/2002/may/020528.htm
http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/news/media/releases/Gutsy_Germs_Succumb_to_Baby_Broccoli
http://juvenon.com/jhj/download/juvenon_vol8no5_update.pdf
http://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/2/4/353

 

6 Things To Be Aware of When Buying A Moringa Oleifera Supplement

Jun 03, 16
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1. Look out for False Claims and Unsupported Facts. – Be cautious of products that claim to be the best and don’t show you the facts behind their statements or use fake celebrity endorsements.
2. Avoid “Free Trial Offers”. – Many companies offer free trials to hook you in. But once you buy, they make it difficult to cancel and you are stuck paying more than you would have for a better product.
3. Avoid Automatic Rebilling. – Many companies will automatically bill your credit card monthly and make it difficult to cancel. This is often bundled with “free trial” options. If they ask for your credit card details, they’re probably going to charge you- make sure you know exactly what you’re paying for.
4. Avoid Proprietary Blends. – If you’re looking for a high quality Moringa Oleifera, make sure there are no added ingredients that might lower the effectiveness and interfere with its progress.
5. Avoid Overdosing. – Some companies are so excited about new supplements that they try to pack in a very high concentration per day. But taking too much of any supplement can actually be dangerous to your health. The recommended dosage is 600mg, two times a day (1200mg total). Steer clear of supplements that push more than 1200mg per daily amount.
6. Look for a 100% Pure Moringa Oleifera extract. – Make sure it contains top quality pure Moringa Oleifera and no other added ingredeints that may water down the potency of a quality supplement.

 

The Healing Powers of Moringa

Jun 01, 16
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congo moringaIn a remote valley of Congo, on a farm with splendid views of lush green mountains, I stand amidst a plantation of young moringa trees. The green leaves glisten in the African sun, the seed pods hang in curls. I pull a tender young leaf and chew on it, enjoying the fresh, pleasing taste. The Belgian couple growing this crop plans to cash in on an up-and-coming trend and their timing appears to be just right.

Over the past few years, a botanical new to the U.S. and European markets has been making impressive gains in popularity, due to its broad traditional benefits and emerging supportive science. That plant, moringa oleifera, is native to northern India, Pakistan, the Himalayan region, Africa and Arabia, but is now cultivated more widely throughout the tropics. The young plantation I have visited in Congo is one such cultivation project.

Also known as drumstick tree or horseradish tree, moringa trees grow quickly, reaching a height of between 15 and 30 feet within just a few years. The leaves, fruit flowers and immature pods of the tree are eaten as nutritious foods. The leaves in particular are consumed either raw in salads, tossed into blender drinks, or steamed like spinach. Rich in protein, beta-carotene, vitamin C, potassium and calcium, the leaves make an excellent green vegetable, and are pleasing in flavor.

But beyond the flavor and nutrition, moringa offers healing benefits. Virtually all parts of the plant are used to treat inflammation, infectious disorders, and various problems of the cardiovascular and digestive organs, while improving liver function and enhancing milk flow in nursing mothers. The uses of moringa are well documented in both the Ayurvedic and Unani systems of traditional medicine, among the most ancient healing systems in the world.

Moringa is rich in a variety of health-enhancing compounds, including moringine, moringinine, the potent antioxidants quercetin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, and various polyphenols. The leaves seem to be getting the most market attention, notably for their use in reducing high blood pressure, eliminating water weight, and lowering cholesterol.

Studies show that moringa leaves possess anti-tumor and anti-cancer activities, due in part to a compound called niaziminin. Preliminary experimentation also shows activity against the Epstein-Barr virus. Compounds in the leaf appear to help regulate thyroid function, especially in cases of over-active thyroid. Further research points to anti-viral activity in cases of Herpes simplex 1.

Now that moringa is emerging as a popular supplement for health enhancement, the science on this plant is accelerating. The glucose-modifying, anti-diabetic effects of moringa may prove of great use amidst a virtual epidemic of Type 2 diabetes and obesity. The liver-protective activities of the leaf and its extracts could make it a staple component of bitters formulas and various cleansing preparations. And ongoing work on the anti-cancer properties of moringa may at some point earn this plant a role in chemotherapy.

In the traditional medicinal systems of many cultures, plants with long uses and benefits remain to be discovered. Moringa oleifera, unknown in the market just ten years ago, is surging into greater popularity due to its multiple health benefits and nutritious value as a food. Also known colloquially as “miracle tree,” moringa is a valuable plant medicine, and deserves a place in the home pharmacy.

Article by Chris Kilham on March 29, 2016

Related News Article:  Moringa Leaves Saving Lives in DRC

trees for life.org - Moringa Tree Combats Malnutrition Worldwide

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Moringa Tree Combats Malnutrition Worldwide

Jun 01, 16
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 Moringa-1a

Moringa Trees can be found in the tropics, world wide. It also thrives in the arid parts of the world where bad water, poor diet, and the diseases are leading killers. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that nearly 80% of the world’s population relies on traditional medicine (the use of plants) for their primary healthcare. Since the Moringa Tree is already common in much of the developing world, it can meet the needs of local populations in terms of availability, accessibility, and utilization. It is already growing in areas of need, with spontaneous growth in many regions, and is a hearty and drought tolerant plant. Unlike imported medicine, foods, or other supplements, the low cost of the Moringa Tree makes it affordable to poor populations. Its potential as a cheap local supplement in the fight against malnutrition is promising. Many humanitarian organizations including the Church World Service, the Educational Concerns for Hunger Organizations, Trees for Life, and the National Science Foundation now promote the use of Moringa in poverty-stricken areas to combat malnutrition.

Amadou Ba, director of a Senegalese village health post states, “We were all trained in the classic solutions for treating malnutrition– whole milk powder, sugar, vegetable oil, sometimes peanut butter. But these ingredients are expensive and the recovery of malnourished infants can take months. Now we have replaced this with Moringa. We start seeing improvements within 10 days.”

Combats Childhood Blindness

Lack of vitamin A (due to malnutrition) causes 70% of childhood blindness around the world. 500,000 children are going blind every year due to lack of vitamin A. The Bethesda, Maryland based International Eye Foundation, is using Moringa with its high content of beta carotene, which is converted to vitamin A by the body, to combat childhood blindness around the world.

Purifies Water

Lack of drinkable water is one of the world’s most serious threats. Water related diseases account for more than 80% of the world’s sickness. People in many developing nations simply do not have acess to clean safe water. They are left with no choice but to drink and wash with water so contaminated that we wouldn’t even dare to walk in it.

Professor Suleyman Aremu Muyibi, of the International Islamic University of Malaysia, believes Moringa seeds could potentially provide a renewable, sustainable and biodegradable material for treating global water supplies. When Moringa seeds are crushed and added to dirty, bacteria laden water, they purify the water. As part of a Nigeria-based study, Muyibi feels that such an opportunity could be especially attractive in developing countries, where roughly 1.2 billion people still lack safe drinking water, with an estimated 25,000 people dying from water-borne diseases every day.

Britain’s University of Leicester is also studying the coagulating properties of Moringa seeds for its water purifying abilities. Researchers believe the Moringa seeds would work better than the common water purifier, aluminum sulfate, which can be toxic, and have successfully replaced the imported alum system of a Malawi village with a simpler full scale system using Moringa seeds.

Related News Article:  Moringa Leaves Saving Lives in DRC

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Moringa Recipes – 101 plus ways to eat and cook

May 06, 16
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Almost all the entire moringa tree can be eaten. You can eat the Moringa leaves, flowers, pods and even the Moringa seeds(dont eat too many seeds)

Moringa Juice

Mix moringa in a juice, milkshake. Honey works well to mask the taste.

Add only half a teaspoon of Moringa to juice to prevent spoiling the taste.

Moringa Salad

Sprinkle your Moringa over wet salad – you wont notice it.

Moringa in Cooked Meals

Sprinkle Moringa powder over the food just before serving. You can stir it in, but DON’T COOK Moringa powder, it diminishes the nutritional value.

Moringa Tea

You can add Moringa powder to hot water to create a tea. Do not boil the Moringa, add it to a pot with pre-boiled water an let it brew fro 3-5 minutes. Moringa tea has less nutrients than taking the powder.

How to cook and eat Moringa

There is endless ways to incorporate Moringa fresh leaves and Moringa  leaf powder into the diet.

Moringa leaf powder can be used as a tea, added to beverages, sprinkled on food or taken in capsules. Moringa leaf powder can be used in cooking or salades.

Moringa Recipes

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MORINGA LEAVES GULAY*
Ingredients:
1 c. coconut milk diluted with 1 c. water
1 c. dried fish (boiled, flaked, and fried in 1 T. cooking fat)
2 garlic cloves, minced
1 medium onion, sliced
Moringa Recipes Page 5
1/8 tsp. salt
6 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted
4 pieces chili peppers, crushed
Preparation: Boil coconut milk, dried fish, garlic and onion for 10 minutes. Season with salt, stirring the
mixture continuously. Add moringa leaves and crushed chili peppers. Cook 5 minutes longer. Serve hot.
Serves 6

.DRUMSTICK CURRY WITH ONIONS

Ingredients
» 2-3 onions finely chopped
» 1 tbsp tamarind extract or
» 1 tomato chopped
» 1 twig of curry leaves
» salt to taste
Seasoning
» 1/2 tsp mustard seeds
» 2 red chilis broken into pieces
» 2 tbsp cooking oil

Preparations

Cut drumsticks into 1″-11/2″ long pieces. Heat oil in a pan and add the seasoning ingredients. When mustard seeds stop spluttering, put the chopped vegetables except tomato and saute’. Add salt and turmeric powder. Cover the pan and allow it to cook on a low flame. Keep stirring in between till done. Add chili powder and tamarind extract / chopped tomato. Cook for some more time. Serve hot with rice.

DRUMSTICK WITH RICE AND COCONUT (Mulaga kaada Pindi koora)

Ingredients
» 4 or 5 drumsticks
» ½ cup rice soaked for 4 hrs
» ½ coconut
» 4 red chilies
» salt to taste
Seasoning
» 1 tsp black gram
» ½ tsp mustard seeds
» 1 red chili broken into bits
» 1 or 2 twigs of curry leaves
» ½ tbsp oil

Preparations

Wash and soak rice in just enough water. Grate coconut and grind it into not too fine a paste along with the red chilies and the soaked rice. Add salt and turmeric powder and dilute it by adding two to three cups of water. Cut drumsticks into 4 inch long pieces and cook them with a pinch of salt. Remove when done. Heat oil in a pan and add black gram, mustard seeds and chili pieces. When mustard stops crackling, put in the curry leaves and the liquid. Allow it to cook on a low flame, stirring all the time. Make sure that no lumps are formed. When done (check to see that the ground rice is cooked), add the cooked drumsticks and mix carefully so as not to mash the drumsticks. It goes well with rice.

Note: The contents should be well cooked. Test by tasting. Add more water if necessary and cook till properly done

Drumsticks cutlets

Ingredients
» 10-12 large fleshy drumsticks, unpeeled, cut into 3″ fingers
» 1 cup roasted gram, whole
» 5 slices bread crumbled coarsely
» 1/2 cup fine bread crumbs for coating
» 3-4 flakes garlic, grated
» 1″ piece ginger, grated
» 3-4 green chillies finely minced
» 1 large onion, coarsely grated, sprinkle with a little salt
» 1 tbsp. coriander leaves finely chopped
» 1/2 tsp. garam masala powder
» salt to taste
» oil for deep frying

PreparationsBoil drumsticks in plenty of water. Remove.
Scrape out inside flesh carefully, with a blunt knife, or back of a spoon.
Cool, run in a mixie till smooth.
Toast whole gram lightly on griddle till light golden.
Powder gram in mixie till fine, keep aside.
Press out all excess water from salted onions.
Heat one tbsp. oil
Add grated garlic, ginger, chillies, onions.
Stir till onions are tender.
Add drumstick pulp, salt, garam masala, coriander leaves
Cool a little.
Add ground gram, crumbled bread, mix into a lump.
Make small oblong cutlets with mixture, roll in breadcrumbs.
Chill for 10 minutes, reroll in breadcrumbs.
Fry in hot oil, till crisp and golden.
Serve hot with sauce, tamarind chutney, or green chutney.
Making time: 30 minutes
Makes: 15 cutlets
Shelflife: Unfried, refrigerated, 1 day . After frying, Best fresh

Drumsticks in Red Gravy

Ingredients
» 5 drumsticks, scraped, cut in 2″-3″ pieces
» 3 ripe firm tomatoes, grated
» 1 onion grated
» 2 flakes garlic grated
» 1″ piece ginger, grated
» 1 stalk curry leaves
» 1 tsp. coriander leaves finely chopped
» 1 tbsp. coconut, finely scraped
» 1 tsp. red chilli powder
» 1 tsp. coriander seed (dhania) powder
» 1/4 tsp. turmeric powder
» 1/4 tsp. garam masala powder
» 2 pinches asafoetida powder
» 1/2 tsp. sugar
» salt to taste
» 1/2 tsp. each cumin & mustard seeds
» 1 tbsp. oil

PreparationsHeat oil, add cumin & mustard seeds, asafoetida
Allow to splutter.
Add ginger, onion, garlic, stirfry till oil separates.
Add drumsticks, stir, cover and simmer till halfdone, stirring occasionally.
Add tomato, curryleaves, coconut, stir
Cover and cook till drumsticks are almost done.
Add all dry masalas, sugar, salt, 1/4 cup water.
Cover and cook till drumsticks are tender to touch.
Pour into serving bowl, garnish with coriander leaves.
Serve hot with thin phulkas, puris or steamed rice.
Making time: 30 minutes
Makes: 4-5 servings
Shelflife: Best fresh, refrigerated-2 days

Drumstick sabzi with gramflour

Ingredients
» 5 long fleshy drumsticks
» 1 tomato finely chopped
» 1 small capsicum finely chopped
» 1″ piece ginger grated
» 2 stalks curry leaves
» 2 green chillies, slit in half
» 1 tbsp. coriander leaves finely chopped
» 2 tsp. thick tamarind pulp
» 1/2 cup gramflour
» 1 tsp. red chilli powder
» 1/2 tsp. coriander seeds (dhania) powder
» 1/4 tsp. garam masala powder
» 3-4 pinches asafoetida
» 1/2 tsp. sugar
» salt to taste
» 1/2 tsp. each cumin & mustard seeds
» 2 tbsp. oil

PreparationsClean, scrape, cut into fingers size pieces
Boil drumstick pieces in 5 cups water, till tender.
Remove, drain, save water and keep aside.
Open fingers into vertical strips, usually 3 apiece.
Heat oil in a large heavy pan
Add cumin, mustard seeds, allow to splutter.
Add curryleaves, chillies, ginger, asafoetida, stir.
Add tomato, capsicum, drumsticks, stirfry for 2 minutes.
Add all dry masalas, salt and sugar to drained drumstick liquid.
Add gramflour, mix to a thin paste, adding more water if required.
Stir so no lumps are left.
Pour into simmering drumsticks, stir well till it starts boiling.
Cover, simmer till gravy becomes thick and bubbly.
When oil starts separating a bit, remove, pour into serving dish.
Garnish with coriander leaves, serve hot with parathas or phulkas.
Making time: 30 minutes
Makes: 5 servings
Shleflife: Best fresh

Drumstick-Aloo sabzi

Ingredients
» 6 drumsticks, peeled cut in fingers
» 3 potatoes, cut in chunks
» 1 onion finely chopped
» 1 tomato finely chopped
» 1 stalk curry leaves
» 1 tbsp. coriander leaves finely chopped
» 1 tsp. chilli powder
» 1 tsp. coriander seed powder
» 1/4 tsp. turmeric powder
» 1/4 tsp. garam masala powder
» 1 tsp. Maharasthrian black masala (kaala masala)
» salt to taste
» 1 tsp. wheat flour
» 1/2 tsp.mustard seeds
» 3-4 pinches asafoetida
» 3 tbsp. oil
Grind Together
» 1 small onion
» 5 garlic flakes
» 2″ piece ginger
» 2 red chillies
» 1/2 tsp. cumin seeds
» 1 tsp. sesame seeds
» 5-6 cashews
» 2 long tamarind strips
» 1 stalk mint leaves, plucked
» 1 tbsp. curds

PreparationsHeat 1 tbsp. oil, fry ground paste till oil separates
Keep aside.
Meanwhile, heat remaining oil in another large pan.
Add mustard seeds, curry leaves, asafoetida, allow to splutter.
Add potato and drumsticks, stir, sprinkle a little water, cover to cook.
Sprinkle water frequently, stirring each time, to cook evenly.
When potatoes are soft to pressure
Add all dry masala powders, salt, tomato, onion.
Stirfry till onions turn soft.
Add ground paste, half cup water, stir and cook further 2-3 minutes.
Sprinkle wheat flour, stir immediately to blend
Take off fire after a minute.
Pour into serving dish, garnish with chopped coriander.
Serve hot with rotis, phulkas, jowar or millet chappatis.
Making time: 45 minutes
Makes: 5 servings
Shelflife: 2 days

Drumstick leaf korma

Ingredients
» 2 cups tender plucked leaves of drumstick tree
» 1/2 cup split green gram with skin, washed soaked in 2 cups water
» 1 carrot peeled, chopped
» 5-6 French beans chopped
» 1 potato, scrubbed, washed, grated
» 3-4 green chillies
» 1″ piece ginger grated
» 1 stalk curry leaves
» 2 pinches asafoetida powder
» 1/4 tsp. turmeric powder
» 1/2 tsp. each cumin & mustard seeds
» salt to taste
» 2 tsp. lemon juice
» 2 tbsp. oil

PreparationsChop, wash, drain drumstick leaves.
Heat half oil in a pressure cooker.
Add carrots, drained gram, beans, 1 chopped chilli
Stirfry for 2-3 minutes.
Add potatoes, leaves, ginger, stir, add two cups hot water.
Add turmeric, salt, mix well.
Put lid, cook for two whistles.
Cool cooker, remove lid.
Add salt and lemon juice to tasteTo temper:Heat remaining oil in small pan, add seeds
Allow to splutter.
Add curry leaves, asafoetida, remaining chillies (halved)
Pour into while sizzling, into korma.
Stir gently, serve hot with jeera rice, or steamed rice.
Making time: 25 minutes
Makes: 3 servings
Shelflife: 1 day

Drumstick flower chutney

Ingredients
» 1 cup fresh drumstick flowers, washed, drained
» 3-4 green chillies
» 2 stalks mint leaves, plucked, cleaned
» 2 stalks curry leaves, plucked, cleaned
» 1/4 cup split dry roasted chickpeas (phutana)
» 1/4 cup fresh coconut grated
» 1 small flake garlic
» 1/2 tsp. ginger grated
» salt to taste
» 2 tsp. lemon juice
To temper
» 2 tsp. oil
» 1/2 tsp. urad dal
» 1/2 tsp. cumin seeds
» 1/2 tsp. mustard seeds
» 2 pinches asafoetida
» 1 stalk curry leaves, plucked
» 5-6 drumstick flowers, cleaned
» 1 tbsp. water

PreparationsGrind all ingredients together to a fine chutney.
Check salt and lemon juice to taste
Pour into dish.To TemperHeat oil in a small pan.
Add dal, seeds, asafoetida, allow to splutter.
Add curryleaves, flowers, water
Pour into chutney while sizzling.
Stir gently, serve with any snacks, dosas, vadas, or as an accompaniment to meals.
Making time: 15 minutes
Makes: 2 cups chutney
Shelflife: 2 days refrigeratedNote: If phutana is not available, one may use for every 1/4 cup phutana, 1 tbsp. bengal gram, soaked for at least one hour.Variation: One may use drumstick leaves in addition with the flowers, for taste and colour enhancement. One may also use red chillies instead of green.

Drumstick Thoran

Ingredients
» 5-6 drumsticks peeled, chopped like fingers
» 2 onions finely slivered
» 1/2 tsp. mustard seeds
» 1/2 tsp. rice grains
» 2 dry red chillies broken in half
» 2 tbsp. oil
» salt to taste
Grind to a paste
» 3/4 cup fresh coconut grated
» 1/2 tsp. cumin seeds
» 3 flakes garlic
» 2 green or red fresh chillies
» 2-3 pinches turmeric powder

PreparationsWash and put drumsticks to boil in 2 cups water.
Allow to cook covered in a pan till tender, then remove lid.
When almost all water has evaporated, empty and keep aside.
Put ground paste in same pan, cover with boiled drumsticks.
Sprinkle some salted water, cover and cook till steam is given out.
Stir gently, sprinkle some more water, cover and keep aside.
Heat oil in a small pan, add rice and mustard seeds.
Allow to splutter, add chillies and onions.
When onions are transparent, pour over drumstick mixture.
Simmer again, stirring gently, till all water is evaporated.
Serve hot with rice, chappati, etc.
Making time: 30 minutes
Makes: 6 servings
Shelflife: 1 day

THORAN

Drumstick (Muringakkai) 12
» Onion ½ cup cut into small pieces
» Green chilli 3 cut fine
» Garlic 4 pods
» Coconut ½ piece (grated)
» Turmeric powder ½ teaspoon
» Jeera powder One pinch
» Oil 2 table spoon
» Curry leaves
» One sprig
» Salt to taste

Cut drumstick lengthwise into two halves and take out the inside fleshy part with a spoon. Cut it into small pieces. Mix it with green chilli, garlic, onion, grated coconut, jeera, turmeric, curry leaves and salt. Mix well and keep it for 30 seconds.Heat oil in a separate pan, splutter mustard and put the mixture into it and mix with oil. Cover it with a lid and cook it using low flame for 6 minutes. When it is cooked stir well again for 2 minutes and remove from the flame.

DRUMSTICK SAMBAR

Drumstick (Muringakkai) 12
» Onion (small) – 1/4 kg
» Tomato – 4 nos
» Thuar Dhal – 1/2 kg
» Chilly powder – 2 tsp
» Coriander powder – 2 tsp
» Mustard -1 tsp
» Tamarind – lemon size
» Green chillies – 4 nos

PreparationsCook mashed dhal. Tamarind to be kept soake in water for 10 mts. Take puree. Put mustard in 1 tsp oil and allow it to split. Add chopped onions green chillies, tomato, turmeric powder, chilli powder, coriander powder and fry it for 2 seconds.Add salt to taste. Allow it to boil for 10 mts Remove from fire and serve hot. Garnish with chopped coriander leaves and curry leaves.SHRIMP SUAM*
Ingredients:
2 T. shortening 1-1/2 tsp. salt
1 tsp. minced garlic 5 c. water
2 T. sliced onion 12 fresh shrimp, trimmed
1 T. ginger, cut into strips 2 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted
1 T. fish sauce
Preparation: Saute garlic, onion and ginger in shortening, in large fry pan. Add fish sauce, salt and water.
Bring to a boil, and add shrimp. Cover and cook 10 minutes longer. Serve at once, Serves 6.

MUNG BEAN STEW
Ingredients:
4 T. cooking fat 1/2 c. shrimp juice
1 tsp. minced garlic 1/2 c. pork broth
2 T. sliced onion 3 c. water
1/2 c. sliced tomatoes 4-1/4 tsp. salt
1/2 c. sliced boiled pork dash of pepper
1/2 c. sliced shrimp 3 c. moringa leaves, washed and sorted
1 c. dried mung bean, boiled
Preparation: Saute garlic, onion and tomatoes in large fry pan. Add pork and shrimp. Cover and cook 3
minutes. Add mung bean, shrimp juice, pork broth and water. Cover and bring to a boil. Season with salt and
pepper, then add moringa leaves and cook 5 minutes longer. Serves 6.

DINENGDENG II*
Ingredients:
1/2 c. dried pigeon pea or 2 large tomatoes, sliced
Congo pea boiled in 1 1 medium-size fish cut into slices and boiled
c. water 10 young okra, cut into 1” lengths
3 c. water 1/4 c. fish paste
2 c. cowpea or yard-long
bean cut into 2″ lengths
2 c. moringa leaves
1/2 medium onion, sliced
Page 6 Moringa Recipes
Preparation: Add water to cooked pigeon pea or Congo pea in large saucepan. Boil, and add cowpea or yardlong
bean. Cover and cook 3 minutes. Add fish paste, onion, tomatoes, fish and okra. Cover and boil 2
minutes. Do not stir vegetables. Add moringa leaves, cover, and cook 5 minutes longer. Serve hot. Serves 6.

SAUTEED MORINGA PODS
Ingredients:
2 c. fresh moringa pods 2-1/2 c. shrimp juice from pounded heads of shrimp
2 T. shortening 2 T. shrimp paste
1 tsp. minced garlic 1 tsp. salt
2 T. sliced onion 1 c. fresh lima or butter bean seeds, peeled
1/2 c. sliced tomatoes 1 c. green cowpea or yard-long bean pods cut into 1-1/2″ lengths
1 c. boiled pork, diced
1/2 c. shrimp, shelled
and sliced lengthwise
Preparation: Cut moringa pods lengthwise into 4 pieces. Slice white pulp including tender seeds. Discard
outer covering. Cut pulp into 1-1/2 inch lengths. Saute garlic, onion, and tomatoes. Add pork and shrimp.
Cover, and cook 2 minutes. Add shrimp juice, and boil. Season with fish paste and salt. Add lima or butter
beans, and cook 3 minutes. Add moringa pulp and cowpea or yard-long bean. Cover, and cook 10 minutes.
Serves 6

.JAMBALYA CAMP
Ingredients:
1 c. rice 1/2 c. winged bean, blanched
1 onion, chopped 1 carrot, sliced thinly
3 T. oil 1 green pepper, sliced thinly
1 c. ground pork 1/2 c. pigeon or Congo pea seeds
3/4 c. tomatoes, chopped 1/2 c. moringa leaves
1 T. finely chopped celery 3 T. fish sauce
1/2 c. small fresh-water
clams (no shell)
3 c. water (soup of boiled clams)

CORN WITH MORINGA LEAVES
Moringa Recipes Page 7
Ingredients:
2 c. grated young corn 1 small sponge gourd (luffa)
2 cloves garlic 1 c. moringa
1 head onion 1-1/2 Accent or MSG
3 c. water salt to taste
Preparation: Saute garlic and onion in medium fry pan. Add water and let it boil. Then add the corn, stirring
often to avoid burning. When cooked, add the gourd and moringa.

MIXED VEGETABLE EMBOTIDO*
Ingredients:
1-1/2 c pigeon or Congo peas, 1 c. meat from unripe coconut
boiled and mashed 1 red pepper
1 c. moringa leaves or fruit 1 green pepper
1 c. squash, grated 3 beaten eggs
1-1/2 c carrots, grated 1 onion, chopped
4 T. margarine 1/2 c. winged beans
1 head garlic, chopped pepper and salt to taste
Preparation: Mix all ingredients above. Wrap in plastic bags, and tie both ends. Steam for 45 minutes.

SAUTED PIGEON PEA OR CONGO PEA, PAPAYA, MORINGA AND WINGED BEAN WITH LIVER
Ingredients:
1-1/4 c. pigeon or Congo peas 1/2 c. liver
3 quarts water 3 T. salt
3/4 c. cooking oil 2 c. water
4 segments garlic 1-3/4 c. winged bean
1-1/4 c. tomatoes 2 c. moringa leaves
Preparation: Boil peas until cooked. Set aside. Saute garlic, onion and tomatoes. Add liver. Cover and cook
until liver is tender. Season. Add water. Add winged bean and papaya. Cover and cook 10 minutes. Add
cooked peas and moringa leaves. Serve hot.

PIGEON PEA OR CONGO PEA WITH PORK AND BANANA BLOSSOM
Ingredients:
1 c. peas 1 c. winged bean
1 pc banana blossom 1/2 moringa leaves
1 leg pork ginger
1 c. roselle salt to taste
Preparation: Brown pork. Remove from heat, and cut into cubes about 2 inches in size. Boil peas and pork leg
until tender. Add ginger and salt to taste. Add banana blossoms and winged beans. When tender, add roselle
and onions.

CHICKEN WITH PIGEON OR CONGO PEA, PAPAYA, MORINGA AND WINGED BEAN
Page 8 Moringa Recipes
Ingredients:
1 medium size chicken 1 onion
1-1/2 c. boiled pigeon or Congo pea 1 tomato
2 pcs green medium size papaya 3 cloves garlic
1 c. winged beans salt or Accent to taste
1 c. moringa leaves
Preparation: Saute garlic, onion and tomato. Add sliced chicken, boiled peas, and boil for 20 minutes. Then
add papaya and winged beans, and boil another 10 minutes. Add Accent and salt to taste. Put in moringa
leaves before removing from heat. Serve hot.

PIGEON PEA OR CONGO PEA, PAPAYA, MORINGA AND WINGED BEAN HAMBURGER
Ingredients:
1 c. boiled peas, mashed 1/2 c. papaya, chopped
1/2 c. string beans,chopped 1/2 c. flour
1/2 c. moringa 2 eggs
1 big sized onion,chopped 2 segments garlic
oil to fry; salt to taste
Preparation: Saute garlic, onions and tomatoes. Add mashed peas, papaya, winged beans, and set aside. Beat
eggs and add flour. Add moringa leaves to sauted ingredients, and mix with beaten eggs.

POCHERO A LA BERDING GULAY
Ingredients:
1 c. peeled & sliced unripe papaya 3 stems green onions
1 c. moringa leaves 1 small pc ginger (thinly sliced)
1 c. green beans or winged beans 1 T. cooking oil
3 pcs ripe tomato 5 black pepper, whole
3 pcs ripe banana 3 c. water
1 c. dried minnow salt to taste
1 clove garlic
Preparation: Saute the garlic and ginger in cooking oil until slightly brown. Add the water and bring to a boil.
Add the banana, beans and black pepper. Cover, and continue to boil. When half-done add the sliced papaya,
dried minnow, tomatoes, green onions, and salt to taste. Lastly, add the moringa leaves. Remove from heat
when done, and serve while hot. Serves 8.

MASQUADILLA TORTA*
Ingredients:
1/2 c. moringa leaves 3 eggs, beaten
1 c. winged bean pods, 3 pcs tomato, sliced
finely chopped 1/2 c. shredded papaya
3/4 c. shredded squash 1/2 c. onion, sliced
1/2 c. powdered mung bean 5 segments garlic
Moringa Recipes Page 9
1/4 c. powdered dried minnow Salt & pepper to taste
Preparation: Mix moringa pods, leaves, shredded papaya, squash, powdered dried minnow, powdered mung
bean, tomatoes, beaten eggs, onion, garlic, salt and pepper to taste. Place one piece of 5 x 5 banana leaf on a
plate, and pour the mixture on it. Then deep fry in oil until golden brown. Garnish with sliced tomatoes, onions
and calamansi*. Serves 8.

PIGEON OR CONGO PEA, PAPAYA, MORINGA, WINGED BEAN CHICKEN GUINAT-AN*
Ingredients:
3 pcs tomato 8 pcs winged bean
1 small papaya 1 c. coconut milk
1 c. boiled pigeon or Congo pea 1 c. palm heart
2-1/2 c. sliced chicken 3 pcs garlic
1 c. moringa leaves 1 small ginger
3 c. water 1 onion
Salt to taste
Preparation: Saute garlic, onions, tomato and ginger in hot oil. Add the sliced chicken and boil with salt. Then
add the water, and boil until the chicken is done. Add the papaya, palm heart, winged beans and pigeon or
Congo pea. Lastly, add the moringa and coconut milk. Season to taste.

VEGETABLE DELIGHT
Ingredients:
1 c. pure coconut milk 1 small pc ginger
1/3 c. pure coconut milk reserve 3 pcs bell pepper, green & red, quartered
5 pcs fish, preferably tilapia 1/2 c. moringa leaves
1 onion bulb, sliced 1-2 T. cooking oil
1 head garlic, crushed 1 t. crushed black pepper
3 tomatoes, quartered 1/2 c. pigeon or Congo peas
8-10 winged beans or string 1 c. cubed yellow sweet potato
beans, quartered
Preparation: Saute garlic in oil until brown. Add onion. Transfer to unglazed cooking pot, then add 1 c. pure
coconut milk, winged beans, pigeon or Congo peas, yellow sweet potato, fish, and ginger. Let it boil until halfdone.
Add bell peppers and tomatoes. Season with salt and crushed pepper. Add the rest of the coconut milk
and moringa. Boil for 5 minutes, and serve.

PATALBOG*
Ingredients:
1 c. sliced papaya 4 c. water
1 c. moringa leaves 1 tsp. salt
1 c. winged beans ginger and seasoning to taste
1 c. pigeon or Congo peas
Preparation: Wash peas and papaya (which have been sliced into elongated pieces). Remove young moringa
leaves from stems, and place in a cup. Slice winged beans to desired size, and wash. Pare ginger, and pound.
Page 10 Moringa Recipes
Place all ingredients in a casserole accordingly. Cook for 15 minutes or until all vegetables are tender. Serve
hot. Serves 4.

SAUTED YOUNG PIGEON OR CONGO PEAS
Ingredients:
2 c. dried minnow 2 T. oil
2 c. moringa leaves 2 tsp. soy sauce
1 c. young pigeon or Congo peas 1 medium size onion
1/2 c. sliced tomato 3 cloves garlic
1 c. sliced squash salt to taste
Preparation: Saute garlic, onions and tomatoes. Add fish, squash and peas, and cover. Cook for 10 minutes.
Add moringa leaves, and continue cooking for 3 minutes. Remove from heat and serve hot.

DINENGDENG
Ingredients:
1 c. pigeon or Congo peas, boiled 1 T. fish paste or
1 c. green papaya, sliced into salted fish
small pieces 1 pc ginger
1 c. moringa leaves 2 medium tomatoes, sliced
1 c. winged beans, sliced into strips
1 c. roasted walking catfish or mullet
Preparation: Boil 2 c. water in a casserole. Add the fish paste, ginger, and roasted fish for 15 minutes. Then
add the previously boiled peas, green papaya, and winged beans. Cook until tender. Add the moringa leaves
last, and cook 2-3 minutes more. Add a pinch of Accent or salt to taste. Serve hot. Serves 4.

PINAMILIT NA “HALUWAN” (DALAG)*
Ingredients:
1 c. tilapia (roasted fish) 1 onion
4 c. coconut milk 1 small ginger
2 c. water 1 pc papaya
1 c. moringa leaves black pepper to taste
Preparation: Boil the coconut milk with water. After boiling, mix the fish with the spices for 5 minutes. Add
the papaya and let it boil for 5 minutes, then add the moringa leaves. Cook for 5 minutes more. Remove from
heat. Serve hot. Serves 4.

3-IN-1 RECIPE
Ingredients:
1/2 c. coconut milk, dilute 1/2 c. shrimp paste
1 c. dried shrimp 2 pcs green pepper,
1/2 papaya, unripe, cut into strips (cut into strips)
Moringa Recipes Page 11
3 c. moringa leaves 1 segment garlic & onion, minced
Preparation: Boil coconut milk, shrimp, garlic, and onions for 10 minutes. Season with shrimp paste, and
continue stirring. Add cooked peas, papaya, green pepper, and moringa leaves. Cook 5 minutes longer. Serve
hot. Serves 6.

MSG or Accent
Preparation: Wash rice and soak in small bowl for 1 hour, then drain. Fry onion in cooking oil until tender, but
not brown. Set aside. Fry pork and add tomatoes and fish sauce. Add 3 c. soup of boiled clams. When boiling,
stir in rice slowly on low fire. When rice is half cooked add the other ingredients. Cover tightly and cook
slowly. Serve hot with sliced papaya. Seves 6.

 

  

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Moringa Message: The Beneficial Phytochemicals from Moringa – the Antioxidants

May 06, 16
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Dr. Monica Marcu is noted worldwide for her expertise on Moringa, as she has decades of experience in studying a variety of plants. Her study and research of Moringa is incorporated in her book Miracle Tree, a long-time favorite of Zija Independent Distributors. As a member of the Zija Product Advisory Council, she will be sharing her expertise and findings on Moringa. Below she shares information about the beneficial phytochemicals found in Moringa:

One of the main benefits of moringa stems from her very high concentration and diversity of substances with antioxidant properties. Let’s review why is this important for health and which are these beneficial substances.

Different parts of moringa contain important minerals, vitamins, hormones, various phenolic components that play many roles in the plant metabolism, and act as antioxidants in the human or animal body, once ingested. The plant is indeed, a rich and rare combination of zeatin (plant hormone), quercetin, lutein, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol (the last four are valuable bioactive polyphenols). These phytochemicals (substances derived from plants) also act as antioxidants to stabilize free radicals that damage cells.

Some of the vitamins present in moringa function as potent antioxidants—vitamin E, A (beta-carotene), C, while some of the minerals also can support against the oxidative reactions that are damaging various tissues – selenium, zinc, copper. To summarize, moringa contains a chemical diversity of nutrients and phytochemicals that function as antioxidants and synergize together for a more potent activity.

But what is “oxidation”, a “free radical”, and why do we bother to inhibit their action on our tissues?

A common example of oxidation is the browning of an apple slice when exposed to air. There are many other examples – think about the rancid butter, that is also due to oxidation of the fats contained in butter. Something similar and damaging happens inside our cells and tissues as well.

We cannot live without oxygen—we breathe, and metabolize, and create energy inside every cell by using oxygen. But at the same time, during all these normal processes, some oxygen-containing molecules can become unstable (they have unpaired electrons) and search stability by “stealing” electrons from other molecules. These unstable free radicals are toxic and dangerous if not eliminated fast because they attack and damage proteins, genetic material (DNA), lipids and other components of healthy cells, thus causing harm. The body obviously tries to keep in check these energy “terrorists” and produces natural antioxidants that can donate electrons to the free radicals and stabilize them. But oftentimes our natural protection is overwhelmed due to pollutants, stress, ultraviolet radiation, poor nutrition, toxins—all these bring in, or induce excessive amounts of free radicals. That is when and where the food-derived antioxidants come to play a vital role! Basically, in our modern and quite polluted environment, we need to supplement our diet with rich and potent natural antioxidants. Generally, fruits, veggies, seeds and other plant parts are rich in antioxidants. Antioxidants inhibit and scavenge free radicals, stopping the damage of the normal cells. Today, more than ever, we should provide adequate reserves of antioxidants within our bodies.

A lot of research is now directed towards natural antioxidants originated from plants since they are safe. Moringa oleifera, especially the leaves, exhibit strong scavenging effect on free radicals, not only of oxygen, but of nitrogen as well. The major bioactive compounds were found to be flavonoids such as quercetin and kaempferol.

Article Source: Zija Media Centre

http://drinklifein.com/media-center/zija-news/20160505/moringa-message-beneficial-phytochemicals-moringa-%E2%80%93-antioxidants

Moringa Leaves for Tea

Apr 13, 16
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Moringa Tea – An Antioxidant-Rich Energy Booster

  • Boosts energy levels
  • Improves
  • digestive function
  • Improves mental clarity/focus
  • Promotes sound sleep
  • Provides all vital vitamins
  • Contains several important minerals
  • Is an extremely powerful free radical fighter
  • Moringa has very high levels of fibers
  • Cleanses and Detoxifies the body of infectious toxins
  • Strengthens your immune system
  • Enhances sexual desire and performance
  • Fights cancerous cells
  • Improves upon your overall physical strength
  • Normalizes and regulates cholesterol levels
  • Helps maintain healthy heart function
  • Minimizes inflammation
  • Improves Blood Circulation
  • Prevents arteriosclerosis
  • Enhances visual acuity
  • Helps stabilize normal blood sugar levels
  • Helps improve patients suffering from leukemia, dengue
  • Slows down the aging process
  • Promotes healthier and younger-looking skin
  • Alleviates diabetes
  • Fights general depression and stress
  • Supports weight loss

How to use Moringa Tea Leaves:
Put the Moringa leaves inside hot water and let the tea go by for +/- 5 minutes. Add for extra taste some honey and / or lemon.

Organic Moringa Tea Bags - All Natural 100% Certified Pure Raw Dried Leaf - Highly Nutritious Energizer and Refresher - Caffeine Free - Love it or your Money back

Organic Moringa Tea Bags – All Natural 100% Certified Pure Raw Dried Leaf – Highly Nutritious Energizer and Refresher – Caffeine Free – Love it or your Money back
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Zija’s Premium Tea is a delicious blend of traditional eastern and western herbs that aids in digestion, acts as a natural laxative and diuretic, and eliminates toxins released from fat cells during weight loss. It’s the perfect way to calm and cleanse your body.

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All Things Moringa Review

Apr 13, 16
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 “All Things Moringa”

The Story of an Amazing Tree of Life Contents Introduction Vitamin Mineral Content of Moringa Amino Acid Content of Moringa The Moringa.

Here’s a sample of the 1st 6 of 42 pages

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all-things-moringa all-things-moringa-ebook-794mb-3-638
all-things-moringa-ebook-794mb-4-638 moringa-e-book-6-638

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The Magical Moringa By: Vanita Agarwal

Apr 13, 16
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Full Review of Moringa Oleifera from the California College of Ayurveda Medicine

Introduction

Growing up in India this humble tree grew in our backyard and it never caught my attention, though I always loved the vegetable that grew on it. As I  entered into the world of Ayurveda I learnt about  this most  nutritious  tree  in the world called Moringa  only to realize that this tree was a childhood friend that I had loved and this world famous Moringa was my backyard fried the drumstick tree or Sajana as we used to call it.

In this paper I will attempt to cover:

  • 1. What is Moringa?
  • 2. The Nutritional value of Moringa
  • 3. Johns Hopkins University research on Moringa
  • 4. Health benefits of Moringa
  • 5. The qualities of Moringa from an Ayurvedic perspective

1. What is Moringa?

According to Wikipedia Moringa, a native to parts of Africa and Asia, is the sole genus in the flowering plant family Moringaceae. The name is derived from the Tamil word Murungai (முருங்கை) [1].

It contains 13 species from tropical and subtropical climates that range in size from tiny herbs to massive trees. The most widely cultivated species is Moringa oleifera, a multipurpose tree native to the foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India and cultivated throughout the tropics. M. stenopetala, an African species, is also widely grown, but to a much lesser extent than M. oleifera.

As Moringa spread from India to other tropical and subtropical areas, it adapted to local conditions. Over time, these thirteen distinct species of Moringa developed.

Scientific Classification of Moringa [1]:

Kingdom:         Plantae

(un-ranked): Angiosperms

(un-ranked): Eudicots

(un-ranked): Rosids

Order: Brassicales

Family: Moringaceae

Genus: Moringa

Scientific Names of the 13 different species of Moringa found in the world today [1]

  1. M. oleifera (Northwestern India)
  2. M. arborea (Kenya)
  3. M. borziana
  4. M. concanensis
  5. M. drouhardii (Southwestern Madagascar)
  6. M. hildebrandtii
  7. M. longituba
  8. M. ovalifolia
  9. M. peregrine
  10. M. pygmaea
  11. M. rivae
  12. M. ruspoliana
  13. M. stenopetala

Common Names of Moringa:

While native to the Indian sub-continent, Moringa has spread throughout the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. There are over 400 names of Moringa around different parts of the world. Here are some of the many common names of Moringa: [3]

English Drumstick tree, Horseradish tree, Mother’s Best Friend, Radish tree, West Indian ben
French Bèn ailé, Benzolive, Moringa, Ben oléifère, Arbre radis du cheval
German Behenbaum, Behenussbaum, Flügelsaniger Bennussbaum, Pferderettichbaum
Italian Sàndalo ceruleo
Portuguese Acácia branca, Cedra (Brazil), Marungo, Moringuiero, Muringa
Spanish  Árbol del ben, Ben, Morango, Moringa

Africa

Benin: Patima, Ewé ilé

Burkina Faso: Argentiga

Cameroon: Paizlava, Djihiré

Chad: Kag n’dongue

Ethiopia: Aleko, Haleko

Ghana: Yevu-ti, Zingerindende

Kenya: Mronge

Malawi: Cham’mwanba

Mali: Névrédé

Niger: Zôgla gandi

Nigeria: Ewe ile, Bagaruwar maka

Senegal: Neverday, Sap-Sap

Somalia: Dangap

Sudan: Ruwag

Tanzania: Mlonge

Togo: Baganlua, Yovovoti

Zimbabwe: Mupulanga

Asia

Bangladesh: Sajina

Burma: Dandalonbin

Cambodia: Ben ailé

India: Sahjan, Murunga, Moonga;

Hindi: Sahijan, Munaga, Sajana,

Sindhi: Swanjera

Tamil: Murungai, Murunkak-kai, Morunga

Telegu: Tella-Munaga, Mulaga, Sajana

Kannada: Nugge mara, Nugge kayi;

Oriya: Munigha, Sajina

Punjabi: Sanjina, Soanjana

Rajasthani: Lal Sahinjano

Sanskrit: Sigru Shobhanjan, Sobhan jana, Shobanjana

Konkani/Goa: Moosing, Mosing

Malayalam: Sigru, Moringa, Muringa, Murinna, Morunna

Marathi: Sujna, Shevga, Shivga

Indonesia: Kalor

Pakistan: Suhanjna

Philippines: Mulangai

Sri Lanka: Murunga

Taiwan: La Mu

Thailand: Marum

Vietnam: Chùm Ngây

South and Central America, Caribbean

Brazil: Cedro

Colombia: Angela

Costa Rica: Marango

Cuba: Palo Jeringa

Dominican Republic: Palo de aceiti

El Salvador: Teberinto

French Guiana: Saijhan

Guadeloupe: Moloko

Guatemala: Perlas

Haiti: Benzolive

Honduras: Maranga calalu

Nicaragua: Marango

Panama: Jacinto

Puerto Rico: Resada

Suriname: Kelor

Trinidad: Saijan

Oceania

Fiji: Sajina

Guam: Katdes

Palau: Malungkai

2. The Nutritional value of Moringa

The tree is often referred to as “The Miracle Tree” and “Mother’s Best Friend”, which is understandable when you learn that Moringa contains a unique combination of vitamins, minerals and amino acids that make it one of the most nutritious plants ever discovered. Much of the plant is edible by humans or by farm animals.

Moringa leaves

Moringa leaves are exceptionally nutritious. When fresh, they are rich in vitamin C. When carefully dried, gram for gram Moringa leaves contain 24 times the iron of spinach, 16 times the calcium of milk, 9 times the vitamin A of carrots, many times the potassium of bananas, and every essential amino acid your body needs.

The leaves are rich in protein, vitamin A, vitamin B, vitamin C and minerals [4]. 100g of fresh Moringa leaves have 8.3 g protein, 434 mg calcium, 404 mg potassium, 738 μg vitamin A, and 164 mg vitamin C [5].

 

Antioxidants

Moringa contains 46 powerful antioxidants – compounds that protect the body against the destructive effects of free radicals by neutralizing them before they can cause cellular damage and disease [6].

 

Vitamins

Vitamin A (Alpha & Beta-Carotene), B, B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B12, C, D, E, K, Folate (Folic Acid), Biotin [6]

 

Minerals

Calcium, Chromium, Copper, Fluorine, Iron, Manganese, Magnesium, Molybdenum, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Selenium, Sulphur, Zinc [6] .

 

Essential Amino acids

Isoleucine, Leucine, Lysine, Methionine, Phenylalanine, Threonine, Tryptophan, Valine [6].

 

Non-essential Amino Acids

Alanine, Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Cystine, Glutamine, Gl ycine, Histidine, Proline, Serine, Tyrosine [6]

Vitamin & Mineral Content of Moringa: [9]

All values are per 100 grams of edible portion.

Fresh Leaves Dried Leaves
Carotene (Vit. A)* 6.78 mg 18.9 mg
Thiamin (B1) 0.06 mg 2.64 mg
Riboflavin (B2) 0.05 mg 20.5 mg
Niacin (B3) 0.8 mg 8.2 mg
Vitamin C 220 mg 17.3 mg
Calcium 440 mg 2,003 mg
Calories 92 cal 205 cal
Carbohydrates 12.5 g 38.2 g
Copper 0.07 mg 0.57 mg
Fat 1.70 g 2.3 g
Fiber 0.90 g 19.2 g
Iron 0.85 mg 28.2 mg
Magnesium 42 mg 368 mg
Phosphorus 70 mg 204 mg
Potassium 259 mg 1,324 mg
Protein 6.70 g 27.1g
Zinc 0.16 mg 3.29 mg

Amino Acid Content of Moringa [9]:

All values are per 100 grams of edible portion.

Fresh Leaves Dried Leaves
Arginine 406.6 mg 1,325 mg
Histidine 149.8 mg 613 mg
Isoleucine 299.6 mg 825 mg
Leucine 492.2 mg 1,950 mg
Lysine 342.4 mg 1,325 mg
Methionine 117.7 mg 350 mg
Phenylalinine 310.3 mg 1,388 mg
Threonine 117.7 mg 1,188 mg
Tryptophan 107 mg 425 mg
Valine 374.5 mg 1,063 mg

3. Johns Hopkins University research on Moringa [10] :

Jed W. Fahey, Sc.D. , Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences produced a very important research paper titled: “Moringa oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.” In this seminal work, they began the process of sifting through the scientific work on Moringa, as well as the traditional, as well as anecdotal evidence for Moringa’s nutritional, therapeutic and prophylactic. In doing this, they found that much of the scientific evidence is beginning to support much of the traditional and anecdotal information.

4. Health Benefits of Moringa

Moringa preparations have been cited in the scientific literature as having antibiotic, antitrypanosomal, hypotensive, antispasmodic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, hypo-cholesterolemic, and hypoglycemic activities, as well as having considerable efficacy in water purification by flocculation, sedimentation, antibiosis and even reduction of Schistosome cercariae titer.

Antibiotic Activity: This is clearly the area in which the preponderance evidence—both classical scientific and extensive anecdotal evidence—is overwhelming. The scientific evidence has now been available for over 50 years, although much of it is completely unknown to western scientists [10].

Phytochemicals and 6 Carbon Sugar Rhamnose: An examination of the phytochemicals of Moringa species affords the opportunity to examine a range of fairly unique compounds. In particular, this plant family is rich in compounds containing the simple sugar, rhamnose, and it is rich in a fairly unique group of compounds called glucosinolates and isothiocyanates. For example, specific components of Moringa preparations that have been reported to have hypotensive, anticancer, and antibacterial activity [10].

Antibacterial and Antifungal:

Subsequent elegant and very thorough work, published in 1964 as a PhD thesis by Bennie Badgett (a student of the well-known chemist Martin Ettlinger), identified a number of glycosylated derivatives of benzyl isothiocyanate [5] (e.g. compounds containing the 6-carbon simple sugar, rhamnose) (8). The identity of these compounds was not available in the refereed scientific literature until “re-discovered” 15 years later by Kjaer and co-workers (73). Seminal reports on the antibiotic activity of the primary rhamnosylated compound then followed, from U Eilert and colleagues in Braunschweig, Germany (33, 34). They re-isolated and confirmed the identity of 4-(α-L-rhamnopy-ranosyloxy)benzyl glucosinolate [6] and its cognate isothiocyanate [2] and verified the activity of the latter compound against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. (Jed W. Fahey, 2005) This is clearly the area in which the preponderance of evidence—both classical scientific and extensive anecdotal evidence—is overwhelming. The scientific evidence has now been available for over 50 years, although much of it is completely unknown to western scientists [10].

ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF MORINGA STENOPETALA [12]

The main objective of this study was to isolate compounds from root wood of Moringa stenopetala and evaluate antibacterial activities of the isolated compounds. Three of the compounds namely cholest-5-en-3-ol, palmitic acid and oleic acid showed highest activity against E. coli. The observed antibacterial activities of the crude extract and the isolated compounds could justify the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of different bacterial infections [12].

  1. pylori is an omnipresent pathogen of human beings in medically underserved areas of the world, and amongst the poorest of poor populations worldwide. It is a major cause of gastritis, and of gastric and duodenal ulcers, and it is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (having been classified as a carcinogen by the W.H.O. in 1993). Cultures of H. pylori, it turned out, were extraordinarily susceptible to [2], and to a number of other isothiocyanates (37, 60). These compounds had antibiotic activity against H. pylori at concentrations up to 1000-fold lower than those which had been used in earlier studies against a wide range of bacteria and fungi. The extension of this finding to human H. pylori infection is now being pursued in the clinic, and the prototypical isothiocyanate has already demonstrated some efficacy in pilot studies [10].

Cancer Prevention:

Since Moringa species have long been recognized by folk medicine practitioners as having value in tumor therapy, we examined compounds for their cancer preventive potential. Recently, these compounds were shown to be potent inhibitors of phorbol ester (TPA)-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation in lymphoblastoid (Burkitt’s lymphoma) cells [10].

In one of these studies, they also inhibited tumor promotion in a mouse two-stage DMBA-TPA tumor model. In an even more recent study, Bharali and colleagues have examined skin tumor prevention following ingestion of drumstick (Moringa seedpod) extracts. In this mouse model, which included appropriate positive and negative controls, a dramatic reduction in skin papillomas was demonstrated. Thus, traditional practice has long suggested that cancer prevention and therapy may be achievable with native plants.

Role of Moringa on Gastric Ulcer and its use as Antacid

  • • A study on Moringa leaf extract to determine its effect on experimental gastric ulceration concluded that the leaf extract can be beneficially used in the management of gastric ulcer in contrast to the classical antacid, antihistamine or surgical treatment [13].
  • • Two weeks of treatment with Moringa Oleifera healed gastric ulcer damage [14].

Role of Moringa on Muscle cramps and Sleep

  • • Moringa is found to significantly reduces muscle cramps, decreases body temperature, and enhances sleep [15].

Benefits to Heart, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Atherosclerotic Plaques:

  • • Moringa has been found to have significant benefits to heart [16]. Water extract of Moringa Oleifera leaves possesses strong antioxidant activities. The prevention of artherosclerotic plaque formation in artery as well as the lipid lowering activity of the extract has been shown in rabbit fed with high cholesterol diet. M. Oleifera has high therapeutic potential for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.
  • • It works as well as Simvastatin in decreasing cholesterol, triglycerides, and inhibiting the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. [17]
  • • Moringa strengthens heart function : Prevented structural damage and prevented increases in lipid peroxidation in the myocardium [8]

Anti-fungal

  • • Moringa seeds have shown anti-fungal ability and effectiveness against athlete’s foot [18].

Prevention of Kidney stone

  • • Moringa water extract has shown to prevent kidney stone formation and dissolve already performed stones [19].

Liver fibrosis

Oral administration of Moringa seed extract in rats reduced liver damage as well as symptoms of liver fibrosis. Moringa seed extract can act against CCl(4)-induced liver injury and fibrosis in rats by a mechanism related to its antioxidant properties, anti-inflammatory effect and its ability to attenuate the hepatic stellate cells activation. [20]

Cancer/Chemo preventative property of Moringa

  • • A study was conducted to find out the Chemomodulatory effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice. The findings are suggestive of a possible chemo preventive potential of Moringa oliefera drumstick extract against chemical carcinogenesis [21]

Blood glucose level and Diabetes

  • • Variable doses of M. oleifera leaves aqueous extract administered orally to test the glycemic control, haemoglobin, total protein, urine sugar, urine protein and body weight. The dose of 200 mg kg(-1) decreases blood glucose level (BGL) of normal animals by 26.7 and 29.9% during FBG and OGTT studies respectively. In sub and mild diabetic animals the same dose produced a maximum fall of 31.1 and 32.8% respectively, during OGTT. In case of severely diabetic animals FBG and PPG levels were reduced by 69.2 and 51.2% whereas, total protein, body weight and haemoglobin were increased by 11.3, 10.5 and 10.9% respectively after 21 days of treatment. Significant reduction was found in urine sugar and urine protein levels from +4 and +2 to nil and trace, respectively. The test result concluded that the study validates scientifically the widely claimed use of M. oleifera as an ethnomedicine to treat diabetes mellitus. [22]

5.  Ayurvedic Perspective on Moringa

According to Vaidya Mishra [23] , an Ayurvedic expert from the Shankha Vamsa lineage, Moringa is  both a  detoxifier as well as a tonic. Whenever we detox we also use a tonic, Moringa does both. It purifies and nourishes the blood and muscle tissues, the bone marrow and the fat tissues of any toxins at the same time nourishing it.

Ayurvedic Properties/Guna of Moringa

Taste (rasa) Pungent/katu, tikta/bitter
Virya Heating/ushna
Post Digestive metabolic state (vipak): pungent/katu
Guna Light/laghu, dry/ruksha, sharp/tikshana, fluid/sara
Prabhava • Liver cleanser (yakrit sodhana)
• Purifies Blood (rakta sodhaka)
• enhances spleen/pliha
• Removes worms (krmi), acidic toxins from the blood (amavishagni)
• Relieves from tumor (gulma)
• Strengthens heart/ hridya, fat metabolism and weight loss/Medovishahara and regulates cholesterol.

In Bhava Prakash (16 Century canonical textbook of Ayurveda), part one, authored by Bhav Mishra and Rajnigantu, Moringa is called sigru, or “it moves like an arrow” in the body because it rapidly penetrates the tissues and has deep absorption and detoxification ability, making its effect on the deep bone marrow tissue swift and effective.

The Nature and Qualities of Moringa:

  • • Hot and sharp, but also bitter and pungent
  • • Pacifies vata and kapha (vatakaphapaha)
  • • Pacifies kledaka kapha and increases appetite
  • • Reduces stiffness in the jaw, relaxes the jaw and thus helps in opening the mouth (mukhajadyahar)
  • • It is appetizing (rucyo)
  • • Increases digestive flame (dipano)
  • • It cleans and clears the ulcers (vranadosanut). Vrana means ulcer.
  • • Bitter (Sigrustiktah)
  • • Pungent and heating (Katuscosnah)
  • • Reduces kapha-predominant swelling and water retention, which can also lead to vata imbalance. Swollen ankles are a common complication of excess weight. Three-four drumstick pods per meal begin to reintroduce the intelligence so the body does not accumulate toxins in the lower extremities. Over time, little by little, the swelling will go down and not return. (Kaphasophasamirajit)
  • • Creates an unfriendly environment for the growth of tumors
  • • Destroys krimi and amavisha (Krgyamvisa)
  • • By binding the toxins in the blood, and cleaning the blood (due to its hot potency and pungent taste and post digestive taste), it relieves long term burning in the skin and stomach.
  • • Prevents and rids the tumors. When the clean blood circulates, growth of tumors are prevented and also if tumors are present, gets rid of the tumors (gulmanut).
  • • The Ayurvedic verse on Moringa by Bhav prakash of Bhav Mishra cites Moringa as removing acidic toxins from the blood, cleansing the blood. This in turn lowers bad cholesterol and improves cholesterol metabolism. This correlates the power of Moringa in lowering bad cholesterol and improving cholesterol metabolism.
  • • Kidney Stones: Ushna/hot and thikshana/pungent quality of Moringa stimulates the kidneys, dysuria, increases quantity of urine, removes excess acidity in urine and calculi.

Dr. JV Hebbar, summarizes several interesting facts about Moringa in his blog [24].

Sanskrit Synonyms:

  • • Shobhanjana – Very auspicious tree
  • • Shigru – has strong, piercing qualities
  • • Teekshnagandha – Strong and pungent odor
  • • Aksheeva – relieves intoxication
  • • Mochaka – helps to cure diseases

Classical categorization:

  • According to Charaka Samhita
  • Krimighna – group of herbs that are used to treat worm infestation.
  • Svedopaga – group of herbs that are used in Svedana (preparatory procedure for Panchakarma)
  • Shirovirechanopaga – group of herbs that are used in Nasya Panchakarma treatment
  • Katuka Skandha – group of herbs that have pungent taste.
  • According to Sushruta and Vagbhata – Varunadi Group of herbs. (Hence it is an ingredient of a famous Ayurvedic medicine – Varanadi kashayam)

Medicinal Qualities of drumstick tree:

  • Rasa(taste) – Katu (Pungent), Tikta (bitter)
  • Guna(qualities) – Laghu (light to digest), Rooksha (dryness), Teekshna (strong, piercing)
  • Vipaka – katu (Moringa undergoes pungent taste conversion after digestion.)
  • Veerya – Ushna – hot potency.
  • Effect on Tridosha – Balances Kapha and Vata

Varieties of Moringa:

There are three varieties of Moringa explained in Ayurvedic text books.

  1. Shyama – black variety
  2. Shveta – white variety and
  3. Rakta – red variety. It is also called as Madhu shigru.

Black variety of drumstick tree is the most common. Its qualities are:

Katu – pungent,

Teekshna – piercing, sharp, strong

Ushna – hot in potency

Madhura – slightly sweetish

Laghu – light to digest

Deepana – improves digestion

Rochana – Improves taste,

Rooksha – dry

Kshara – Has alkaline properties

Tikta – Bitter

Vidaahakrit – causes burning sensation

Sangrahi – Useful to check diarrhoea

Shukrala – Improves semen quantity and sperm count

Hrudya – Good for heart. Cardiac tonic

Pittarakta prakopana: Increases Pitta and vitiates blood. Hence, drumstick should not be consumed during bleeding disorders, duriner menstruation and for people with pimples and Pitta related skin diseases.

Chakshushya – Improves vision, good for eyes.

Kaphavataghna – Decreases imbalanced Kapha and Vata

Vidradhi – Useful in abscess. It helps in quick wound healing of abscess, upon oral intake and external application as paste.

Shvayathu – It is a good anti inflammatory herb.

Krimi – useful in worm infestation in stomach and in wounds.

Meda – helpful to decrease fat and obesity.

Apachi – Useful in relieving carbuncles.

Visha – Anti toxic. Has detoxifying action.

Pleeha – Useful in spleen related diseases

Gulma – Useful in abdominal bloating and tumors

Ganda Vrana – Useful in lymphadenitis

White variety Moringa Properties: It is quite similar to the black variety.

Dahakrut – causes burning sensation

pleehaanaam vidradhim hanti – useful in splenic abscess

VraNaghna – helps in quick wound healing

Pittaraktakrut – Increases Pitta and vitiates blood.

 

The Red Variety, called as Madhushigru

Deepana – Increases digestion power.

Sara – promotes proper bowel movements.

Moringa Leaves and Bark

The juice extract of drumstick leaves and bark are very useful in relieving pain. They act as natural analgesic. They are used both for oral intake and also for external application as paste.

In Indian household, the leaves are used to prepare Chutney and Sambar (a south-indian soup).

Moringa seeds uses: Moringa seeds are called as Shweta Maricha

Chakshushya – good for eyes

Vishanashana – anti toxic

Avrushya – do not have aphrodisiac qualities

Nasyena Shiro Artinut – When used for Nasya (in the form of powder or oil), it helps to relieve headache.

 

Moringa for Headaches:

Moringa leaves paste applied externally, or used as vegetable helps to relieve headache.

Its seed powder, in the form of nasya treatment cures headache.

 

Moringa for Diabetes: Many studies have been conducted to prove the anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant effect of Moringa.

Oil prepared with Moringa is useful to relieve headache, pungent, useful in skin diseases and diabetes.

Moringa flowers are useful in intestinal worms. It balances Pitta and kapha.

Moringa Side Effects:

As explained above, it causes increase in burning sensation and is pungent. Hence, people with gastritis or sensitive stomach should use this vegetable carefully.

It is not ideal to be taken during periods, since it increases Pitta and vitiates blood.

It is also not ideal to be taken during bleeding disorders.

 

Moringa during pregnancy and lactation:

Moringa fruit is rich in protein, vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants. Hence it can be used during pregnancy. But Moringa leaves, root bark and flowers are not indicated during pregnancy.

 

Conclusion:

Thus we can see that this humble tree is loaded with wonderful qualities that can be used for healing by an Ayurvedic practitioner. Several scientific studies have documented its great properties of healing like anti-bacterial, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal etc. and has been used successfully for hundreds of years.

 

Bibliography/References:

  1. Moringa, Wikipedia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moringa.
  2. Moringa Tree, http://goodnewsaday.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/a-moringa-tree1.jpg.
  3. Trees for Life International, Moringa Tree. http://www.treesforlife.org/our-work/our-initiatives/Moringa.
  4. Janick, Jules, Robert E. Paull, The Encyclopedia of Fruit & Nuts. (CABI, 2008): 509-510.
  5. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Barbara Stadlmayr, U Ruth Charrondiere, et. al, West African Food Composition Table,   http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2698b/i2698b00.pdf
  6. Moringa Tree Foundation, Seeds of Hope, www.Moringatreefoundation.org 
  7. Trees for Life International, Moringa Tree. http://www.treesforlife.org/our-work/our-initiatives/Moringa
  8. Fuglie LJ, The Miracle Tree: Moringa oleifera: Natural Nutrition for the Tropics (Church World Service, Dakar 1999),   68.; revised in 2001 and published as The Miracle Tree: The Multiple Attributes of Moringa,  172
  9. All Things Moringa, H. Hiawatha Bey, www.allthingsmoringa.com
  10. Jed W. Fahey, S., “Moringa Oleifera: A Review of the Medical Evidence for Its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties. Part 1.” (Vols. Copyright: ©2005 Jed W. Fahey. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, Lewis B. and Dorothy Cullman Cancer Chemoprotection Center, 725 N. Wolfe Street, 406 WBSB, Baltimore, Maryland, USA 21205-2185.]
  11. Moringa Leaves, Angela Mays, http://angelamays.com/files/2012/10/Moringa-overz-Benefits-Leaves.jpg
  12. Mulugeta Tesemma, Legesse Adane, Yinebeb Tariku, Diriba Muleta and Shiferaw Demise. “Isolation of Compounds from Acetone Extract of Root Wood of Moringa stenopetala and Evaluation of their Antibacterial Activities” Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 7(1) (2013):  32-47
  13. Debnath S, Biswas D, Ray K, Guha D., “Moringa oleifera induced potentiation of serotonin release by 5-HT(3) receptors in experimental ulcer model”,  Phytomedicine, 18(2-3) (2011-Jan-15):  91-95
  14. Debnath, S., & Guha, D., “Role of Moringa oleifera on enterochromaffin cell count and serotonin content of experimental ulcer model,” Indian Journal of Exp Biol, 45(8), (2007):   726-731.
  15. Pal, S., Mukherjee, P., Saha, K., M., P., & Saha, B. “Studies on some psychopharmacological actions of Moringa oleifera Lam.”, Phototherapy Research, 10(5), (1996):  402-405.
  16. Chumark, Khunawat et. al, “The in vitro and ex vivo antioxidant properties, hypolipidaemic and antiatherosclerotic activities of water extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves,” Journal of Ethno-Pharmocology 116(3) (2008 Mar 28):  439-446.
  17. Jain, Pankaj G. et al., “Hypolipidemic activity of Moringa oleifera Lam., Moringaceae, on high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in albino rats,” Rev. bras. farmacogn., 20(6) (Dec 2010):  969-973.
  18. Chuang, P. H., Lee, C.W., Chou, J. Y., Murugan, M., Shieh, B.J., & Chen, H. M. “Anti-fungal activity of crude extracts and essential oil of Moringa oleifera Lam.”, Bioresour Technol, 98(1), (2007):  232-236.
  19. Karadi, R. V., Gadge, N. B., Alagawadi, K. R., & Savadi, R. V., “Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. root-wood on ethylene glycol induced urolithiasis in rats.” J Enthnopharmacol, 105(1-2), (2006): 306-311.
  20. Hamza AA, “Ameliorative effects of Moringa oleifera Lam seed extract on liver fibrosis in rats.”

Food Chem Toxicol. 48(1), (2010 Jan):  345-355.

  1. Bharali R, Tabassum J, Azad MR, “Chemomodulatory effect of Moringa oleifera, Lam, on hepatic carcinogen metabolising enzymes, antioxidant parameters and skin papillomagenesis in mice.”  Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, 4(2) (2003 Apr-Jun): 131-139.
  2. Jaiswal D, Kumar Rai P, Kumar A, Mehta S, Watal G, “Effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves aqueous extract therapy on hyperglycemic rats,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 123(3) (2009 Jun 25): 392-396.
  3. Adhishakti LLC, Vaidya Mishra,  “Moringa Super Veggie”, http://issuu.com/vaidyamishra/docs/moringa_super_veggie
  4. Dr JV Hebbar, Moringa Benefits, Medicinal Usage and Complete Ayurveda Details, http://easyayurveda.com/2012/12/06/moringa-benefits-medicinal-usage-complete-ayurveda-details/ 
  5. Dr JV Hebbar, Easy Ayurveda, http://i0.wp.com/easyayurveda.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/shigru.jpg 

– See more at: http://www.ayurvedacollege.com/articles/students/MagicalMoringa#sthash.MlDPIpMU.dpuf

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